2019-01-08 10:24:55 来源：网络专四专八资料下载
[00:25.14]SECTION A MINI-LECTURE
[00:26.69]In this section
[00:29.54]you will hear a mini-lecture.
[00:31.51]You will hear the mini-lecture
[00:34.52]While listening to the mini-lecture,
[00:36.49]please complete the gap-filling task
[00:38.83]on ANSWER SHEET ONE and write
[00:41.40]NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS
[00:42.76]for each gap.
[00:44.00]Make sure the word(s) you fill in
[00:47.17]is (are) both grammatically
[00:50.06]and semantically acceptable.
[00:52.31]You may use the blank sheet
[00:55.77]You have THIRTY seconds
[00:57.51]to preview the gap-filling task.
[01:29.84]Now listen to the mini-lecture.
[01:31.96]When it is over,
[01:32.95]you will be given THREE minutes
[01:34.62]to check your work.
[01:37.04]How to Succeed
[01:37.96]in Your Literature Class
[01:40.01]Good morning everyone,
[01:41.79]our topic today is
[01:43.74]about how to do well
[01:44.96]in your literature class
[01:46.68]in your college days.
[01:48.10]College literature classes
[01:50.13]often shock people
[01:51.41]with little or no experience
[01:52.64]of analyzing literature closely.
[01:55.82]First year students
[01:56.89]and those pre-med students
[01:59.83]their lone literature requirement
[02:00.96]generally find themselves uncertain
[02:04.34]of how to approach
[02:05.64]the assigned readings,
[02:07.19]class discussions, and papers.
[02:12.39]may further terrify students
[02:13.96]if language skills are
[02:15.83]not their strong points.
[02:19.44]and assignments tend to be
[02:20.98]extremely different from those
[02:22.50]of any other discipline
[02:25.80]their extreme subjectivity.
[02:27.11]This aspect is
[02:28.99]what many people
[02:29.92]tend to find most surprising
[02:30.81]and challenging in
[02:33.59]an academic setting.
[02:35.62]I am not saying
[02:36.42]that you can throw reason
[02:37.72]and fact out of the window
[02:39.48]in literature courses,
[02:40.86]but you are given
[02:41.89]much more intellectual freedom
[02:43.79]with your personal thoughts and ideas.
[02:46.38]And that is a feature that catches
[02:49.38]to regimented rules
[02:50.70]and precise answers
[02:52.88]and problem sets slightly off guard.
[02:56.52]The most important pieces
[02:57.93]of advice I can offer
[03:00.39]taking a literature course is
[03:01.71]to be ready
[03:02.96]and willing to read everything
[03:06.35]and in advance.
[03:08.78]Let's begin with the
[03:09.60]"in advance" piece of wisdom.
[03:11.83]Literature professors hate
[03:13.72]when their students
[03:15.03]have not done
[03:15.89]the assigned reading.
[03:17.52]They assigned it for a reason,
[03:18.88]so have it finished
[03:20.82]when you get to class.
[03:22.82]For large lectures students
[03:24.72]often think it is not
[03:26.04]that important to do the readings
[03:27.61]since they will not be forced
[03:29.57]to speak up
[03:30.53]and offer opinions.
[03:32.07]This is completely wrong.
[03:34.22]Why attend a lecture
[03:36.10]on a piece of writing
[03:37.11]that the professor assumes
[03:38.67]you have read?
[03:40.00]You will take nothing away
[03:41.64]from the lecture
[03:42.76]and will not be able to
[03:44.17]make any sense
[03:44.96]of whatever notes you take,
[03:46.51]even if you read the material
[03:47.75]after the fact.
[03:50.09]Also professors tend to be
[03:53.93]so if you are taking a class
[03:55.53]in which you are reading novels,
[03:57.20]if you do not want to find out
[03:59.32]who dies or gets arrested
[04:01.40]or falls in love
[04:03.12]or any other possible endings,
[04:04.80]I would highly recommend
[04:06.72]reading the book before class.
[04:09.45]In small classes
[04:10.99]that have lots of open discussion,
[04:13.11]professors can always tell
[04:15.93]and who has not done
[04:17.57]the week's reading.
[04:18.80]Don't think it won't affect
[04:20.42]your participation grade
[04:22.14]for the course.
[04:22.99]Also if you are
[04:24.64]a particularly shy individual
[04:26.25]who doesn't often speak up
[04:28.47]in class anyway,
[04:30.01]you will be
[04:30.66]even less likely to participate
[04:32.91]if you have no idea
[04:34.77]what the discussion is about.
[04:36.93]Come to class
[04:37.68]with your reading finished
[04:39.20]and you will certainly think
[04:41.02]of some way to contribute
[04:42.30]to the class dialogue.
[04:43.80]The entire point of a literature class
[04:46.43]is to engross a student
[04:48.54]in the general aspects
[04:49.65]of important books,
[04:51.39]to explore many subtle differences
[04:52.96]of how stories are crafted,
[04:55.39]and to train the college scholar
[04:58.36]and digest huge
[04:59.95]amounts of information.
[05:01.44]You won't do well
[05:03.23]in the course
[05:04.61]a sincere attempt to read
[05:07.43]every assigned text.
[05:09.39]Next, make sure you read
[05:11.70]all material very closely.
[05:14.18]Do not skim through
[05:15.88]seemingly unimportant passages
[05:17.85]of long novels,
[05:19.54]or read Spark Notes
[05:21.46]and think you know what happens
[05:22.94]in the reading.
[05:24.97]These methods of "reading"
[05:26.06]leave you without any idea
[05:27.93]of the author's style
[05:29.16]or deeper intentions;
[05:30.05]they merely give you plot
[05:32.51]or surface meanings.
[05:34.04]Reading things halfway
[05:36.47]will be of no benefit to you
[05:37.97]when it is time
[05:39.41]to write your papers.
[05:42.70]usually want papers
[05:44.26]that are very sharply focused
[05:47.35]Often they will assign topics
[05:49.15]that include one of the phrases
[05:51.02]"pick one sentence from the novel",
[05:53.71]or "choose a short passage",
[05:55.95]or"discuss a single metaphor".
[06:00.52]in close reading force students
[06:02.73]to unpack every word within
[06:04.79]their chosen section of the text
[06:07.83]many different possible meanings
[06:11.16]This is where
[06:12.38]a literature student's freedom
[06:13.98]in thinking is clearly exhibited.
[06:16.21]There is no single answer
[06:18.31]or interpretation to
[06:19.81]most pieces of literature,
[06:21.32]but students must be able to
[06:23.66]read closely enough
[06:25.20]to defend a case
[06:26.09]with textual evidence
[06:27.68]that will support
[06:28.80]their personal interpretation.
[06:31.32]Finally, do not feel defeated
[06:33.61]if you find a piece of evidence
[06:35.32]in the text
[06:36.29]that seems to contradict the line
[06:38.53]of thinking you had developed
[06:40.04]about the piece of literature.
[06:41.94]Literature papers and discussions
[06:43.97]should question every theory
[06:45.95]by offering counterevidence.
[06:48.43]As I previously said,
[06:50.31]clear-cut answers do not exist
[06:52.99]in any form of literature,
[06:54.98]be it poetry, fiction, essays,
[06:57.12]or even nonfiction.
[06:58.96]You must read all genres
[07:01.16]with a discerning eye,
[07:02.95]and instead of
[07:03.92]avoiding possible conflicts
[07:05.71]in your papers,
[07:06.69]use them to show
[07:08.18]that you have fully thought
[07:09.60]through your arguments.
[07:11.68]Think of ways
[07:12.78]that they can fit in and support,
[07:14.97]or simply acknowledge
[07:17.42]seems unexplainable to
[07:18.57]your uncertainty is acceptable
[07:21.06]in literature courses;
[07:22.60]after all, you generally
[07:24.40]do not have access to
[07:26.21]the author's personal thoughts.
[07:28.32]Just be sure that even
[07:30.18]your uncertainty delves into
[07:32.40]possible interpretations of a work,
[07:34.26]sentence, or word.
[07:37.85]and papers do not need to
[07:39.41]provide answers per say,
[07:41.38]but they must be thought provoking.
[07:44.32]So unpack single words,
[07:45.93]look up meanings and histories,
[07:48.25]analyze sentence structures
[07:50.96]for potential purposes,
[07:52.19]and never stop questioning
[07:55.31]And the last piece of advice
[07:57.23]I have to offer:
[07:58.50]look at the reading lists
[08:00.12]of literature courses
[08:01.12]you are considering
[08:02.31]so you do not
[08:03.32]make yourself miserable
[08:05.50]a semester reading literature
[08:06.96]you have no interest in.
[08:10.82]should be enjoyable,
[08:12.30]and their readings stimulating,
[08:14.53]so find one that interests you
[08:16.72]and begin analyzing everything!
[08:19.66]OK, today I've given
[08:21.57]several tips to you
[08:22.88]regarding the ways of succeeding
[08:24.67]in your literature class.
[08:26.34]I hope they could
[08:27.89]help you get your hands
[08:28.97]on the class
[08:29.78]when you are ready to go.
[08:31.52]Thank you for listening.
[08:33.28]Now, you have THREE minutes
[08:35.59]to check your work.
[11:36.44]This is the end of
[11:37.36]Section A Mini-lecture.
[11:40.70]SECTION B INTERVIEW
[11:42.77]In this section
[11:43.87]you will hear ONE interview.
[11:46.70]will be divided into TWO parts.
[11:48.93]At the end of each part,
[11:50.48]five questions will be asked
[11:52.72]about what was said.
[11:54.08]Both the interview
[11:55.14]and the questions
[11:56.40]will be spoken ONCE ONLY.
[11:58.84]After each question
[12:00.61]there will be a ten-second pause.
[12:03.25]During the pause,
[12:04.50]you should read the four choices
[12:06.87]of A, B, C and D,
[12:09.15]and mark the best answer
[12:10.85]to each question
[12:12.08]on ANSWER SHEET TWO.
[12:14.16]You have THIRTY seconds
[12:15.89]to preview the questions.
[12:48.00]Now, listen to Part One
[12:49.31]of the interview.
[12:51.13]Questions 1 to 5 are based on
[12:53.25]Part One of the interview.
[12:56.62]W: We brought in a person
[12:57.67]to help us understand
[12:58.83]what regrets are all about.
[13:01.51]Reverend Sherri Hausser is
[13:03.21]an associate pastor at
[13:04.77]the Bryn Mawr Presbyterian Church
[13:08.23]Nice to have you here.
[13:09.69]M: Thank you.
[13:10.82]W: We talked about this,
[13:12.49]I guess in the meeting,
[13:13.66]that everybody on the staff said
[13:16.00]we should do a segment
[13:17.16]about regrets. Why?
[13:18.85]Why is it something
[13:20.22]we need to talk about?
[13:21.58]M: Regrets are
[13:22.70]amongst the most human things
[13:24.94]these amazing invitations
[13:27.06]and opportunities to grow.
[13:29.24]So if you don't have regrets,
[13:30.88]I mean I wouldn't want to deal
[13:33.70]who didn't have regrets.
[13:35.45]W: But immediately
[13:36.82]you say regrets are positive,
[13:38.89]and most people don't think
[13:41.54]Most people think
[13:42.75]that regrets are negative.
[13:44.18]M: I think they have
[13:45.61]a negative attitude on regrets
[13:47.47]because we've been taught
[13:48.80]that regrets are a bad thing,
[13:50.16]so we repress them
[13:52.95]and have a certain amount
[13:54.04]of shame about them.
[13:55.18]But I think they are
[13:56.14]absolutely an opportunity
[13:58.20]if we acknowledge them.
[14:00.13]W: Basically two kinds of regrets.
[14:02.60]Wouldn't that be fair
[14:04.24]to say most people have regrets
[14:06.03]about a personal relationship
[14:07.76]or about an opportunity
[14:09.30]and sometimes obviously
[14:11.28]those things that cross over?
[14:13.38]When is the amount of time
[14:15.11]you spend worrying
[14:15.95]about something you think
[14:18.47]And when does it
[14:20.51]that negatively impacts your life?
[14:22.65]M: I think
[14:23.78]if it makes you stop functioning,
[14:25.34]then it becomes abnormal
[14:27.41]as long as the regret stays
[14:29.18]as an energy.
[14:30.70]Sometimes you have to sit with it
[14:32.84]for a long time.
[14:34.18]You sit with the regret
[14:35.68]and you try to understand.
[14:37.61]It's never about the past.
[14:39.88]It's a present emotion.
[14:41.52]And what it really is—
[14:43.80]it's a yearning
[14:44.56]about something in the future;
[14:45.89]it's something popping up
[14:48.30]"Wow, I could be more,
[14:49.60]I could do something different."
[14:52.65]It's really about focusing on
[14:55.81]even though it seems to be
[14:57.06]about the past.
[14:58.68]W: Sometimes it's about the past.
[15:00.96]A woman in The Pizzaria said,
[15:03.38]"I regret not listening to my mom
[15:05.71]and getting married too young."
[15:07.57]Clearly she set some problems
[15:09.61]in the past.
[15:11.86]This is the end
[15:12.74]of Part One of the interview.
[15:15.06]Questions 1 to 5 are based on
[15:16.86]what you have just heard.
[15:19.39]1. What's Sherri's occupation?
[15:33.16]2. Why is it necessary
[15:35.41]for people to talk about
[15:48.31]3. What is Sherri's attitude
[16:02.16]4. What does Sherri equate
[16:16.32]5. What does the interviewer
[16:18.98]intend to tell by citing
[16:20.94]the example of the woman
[16:22.45]regretting marrying too young?
[16:34.73]Now, listen to Part Two
[16:36.25]of the interview.
[16:37.75]Questions 6 to 10 are based on
[16:39.96]Part Two of the interview.
[16:42.87]M: Yeah, that's true.
[16:44.56]I think that the important thing
[16:46.21]about regret is not to repress it.
[16:48.82]I think it starts to bother us,
[16:51.10]and it inhibits us from acting
[16:52.75]if we don't acknowledge it.
[16:54.17]I think if we articulate it,
[16:56.04]look at what the regret is,
[16:57.69]then it frees us up
[16:59.33]to do something about it.
[17:00.89]W: So you say,
[17:02.54]"OK, I've got a regret.
[17:05.07]Here is what I did
[17:06.61]in a personal relationship.
[17:07.97]Here is what I said to a person
[17:10.53]that I wished I hadn't said it."
[17:12.51]Now, get off your butt,
[17:13.97]and change it.
[17:15.08]So, if you made someone upset,
[17:17.10]you go and apologize.
[17:19.37]Is it as simple as that?
[17:21.25]M: Well, sometimes it is
[17:23.61]as simple as that. I mean,
[17:25.98]it depends again
[17:27.07]on what the regret is about.
[17:29.65]But for example, regretting
[17:31.57]that you married too young—
[17:32.90]it's not about marrying too young.
[17:35.63]That is over.
[17:37.68]You can't do anything about the past.
[17:39.36]But the regret is really
[17:41.14]about right now.
[17:43.00]What do I want different
[17:44.85]about this relationship
[17:46.03]that I'm in?
[17:47.56]And sometimes that means
[17:48.82]I don't want to be
[17:49.90]in this relationship anymore,
[17:51.85]and I have to act that way,
[17:54.02]and that's a very serious thing,
[17:56.45]but it is not about the past.
[17:58.81]Regret is a yearning
[17:59.74]about the future,
[18:01.51]and a yearning to be more.
[18:03.70]W: What's the difference
[18:04.73]between regret and guilt?
[18:07.35]M: I would say
[18:08.10]that guilt is something
[18:09.44]that we used to
[18:10.41]beat ourselves up with.
[18:12.68]that actually stalls us
[18:14.43]and keeps us from acting.
[18:16.39]Regret on the other hand,
[18:18.41]an opportunity toward action.
[18:21.66]If we articulate it,
[18:22.97]then we're compelled
[18:24.07]to do something different about it.
[18:26.10]And it really is an opportunity.
[18:28.85]W: What do you say to those
[18:30.37]who are out there living
[18:31.60]with regrets for years?
[18:33.56]M: I would say you
[18:34.92]have to have a shift
[18:37.70]The second you feel that regret,
[18:39.73]you may think
[18:40.39]"Oh my God,
[18:42.38]an amazing opportunity right now,
[18:44.74]to grow, to develop,
[18:46.64]to discover something new
[18:50.17]To be specific,
[18:51.45]I would say that
[18:52.43]the first thing you do
[18:53.49]is to identify it.
[18:55.80]The second thing is that
[18:57.02]if it is something that is past,
[18:59.17]that you can't reclaim
[19:00.91]in a certain way,
[19:02.34]you have to grieve it.
[19:04.40]The third thing is by grieving,
[19:06.70]you free yourself up to say
[19:08.57]"What can I do now?"
[19:10.66]If it's that I didn't have a child,
[19:12.91]maybe I can adopt one.
[19:15.04]If I can't adopt,
[19:16.51]maybe I can engage the children
[19:18.85]in my life, my niece's,
[19:22.03]other people's children,
[19:23.83]volunteer with children.
[19:26.14]It's a way to really manifest part
[19:29.24]that's been repressed
[19:30.59]and that we've wanted to inform.
[19:33.58]W: I'm going to make
[19:34.42]that one the last word.
[19:36.50]I regret we're out of time,
[19:38.43]so thanks very much.
[19:40.18]M: Glad to be here.
[19:41.81]This is the end
[19:43.35]of Part Two of the interview.
[19:45.73]Questions 6 to 10 are based on
[19:47.94]what you have just heard.
[19:50.44]6. What does Sherri think
[19:54.66]the situations brought
[19:56.04]about by things
[19:57.10]we regret on?
[20:08.44]7. What is the difference
[20:10.56]between regret and guilt?
[20:22.80]8. Which of the following is
[20:25.38]NOT Sherri's suggestion
[20:27.23]for people living
[20:27.98]with regrets for years?
[20:40.10]9. What will Sherri do
[20:42.59]if he can't have a child?
[20:54.53]10. What does this part
[20:57.41]of the interview
[20:58.41]mainly focus on?