2019-01-08 10:25:54 来源：网络专四专八资料下载
[00:25.77]SECTION A MINI-LECTURE
[00:28.68]In this section
[00:29.56]you will hear a mini-lecture.
[00:31.94]You will hear the mini-lecture
[00:34.82]While listening to the mini-lecture,
[00:36.25]please complete the gap-filling task
[00:38.75]on ANSWER SHEET ONE and write
[00:41.37]NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS
[00:42.17]for each gap.
[00:44.27]Make sure the word(s) you fill in
[00:47.58]is (are) both grammatically
[00:50.04]and semantically acceptable.
[00:52.70]You may use the blank sheet
[00:56.15]You have THIRTY seconds
[00:57.41]to preview the gap-filling task.
[01:29.79]Now listen to the mini-lecture.
[01:31.99]When it is over,
[01:33.00]you will be given THREE minutes
[01:34.65]to check your work.
[01:38.22]Good morning, everyone.
[01:39.75]Last class we discussed
[01:41.45]some of the shifts and trends
[01:43.07]in theories relating to reading.
[01:45.57]This time we will examine tips
[01:47.61]which will help to develop
[01:49.21]our abilities as learners
[01:50.70]in reading classes.
[01:52.51]These tips can be viewed
[01:54.10]in three consecutive stages:
[01:57.38]during reading, and after reading.
[02:00.84]before starting to read a text
[02:02.97]it is natural to think of the purpose
[02:05.22]of reading the text.
[02:07.08]As an example of
[02:08.04]the during-reading techniques,
[02:10.89]for better comprehension
[02:12.21]can be mentioned.
[02:13.25]And filling out forms and charts
[02:16.01]can be referred to
[02:16.81]as an after-reading activity.
[02:19.77]These tasks and ideas
[02:20.73]can be used to enhance
[02:24.43]First of all, I will introduce to you
[02:27.07]some pre-reading tips.
[02:29.37]Before the actual act
[02:31.24]of reading a text begins,
[02:32.48]some points should be noted
[02:34.20]in order to make the process
[02:35.80]of reading easier.
[02:37.36]It is necessary to find
[02:41.35]to facilitate comprehension.
[02:44.70]pre-reading discussion activities
[02:47.16]can lighten learners'
[02:48.59]cognitive burden while reading,
[02:50.47]because prior discussions
[02:52.17]will have been incorporated.
[02:54.09]Some key vocabulary and ideas
[02:56.94]in the text
[02:57.87]should be acquired beforehand,
[02:59.99]including key concepts,
[03:06.73]The teacher may lead a discussion
[03:08.97]in which he or she draws out
[03:12.21]you already have and interjects
[03:15.82]deemed necessary to
[03:17.14]an understanding of the text
[03:19.19]to be read. Moreover,
[03:20.97]the teacher can make explicit links
[03:23.40]between prior knowledge
[03:24.96]and important information
[03:26.55]in the text.
[03:27.71]Therefore, involve yourselves
[03:29.78]in this part.
[03:31.01]It is also necessary for you
[03:33.56]to become aware of the purpose
[03:35.63]and goal of reading a certain piece
[03:37.52]of written material.
[03:39.20]At the beginning stage
[03:41.13]this can be done by the teacher,
[03:43.19]but as you become more mature,
[03:45.28]this purpose, i.e.
[03:49.27]can be left to yourselves.
[03:52.90]you may be guided
[03:53.98]to ask yourselves,
[03:55.19]"Why am I reading this text?
[03:57.18]What do I want to know
[03:58.87]or do after reading?"
[04:00.72]One of the most obvious,
[04:02.53]but unnoticed points
[04:03.93]related to reading purpose
[04:05.83]is the consideration
[04:07.27]of the different types of reading skills.
[04:09.87]Skimming is reading rapidly
[04:12.05]for the main points;
[04:13.59]scanning is reading rapidly
[04:15.99]to find a specific piece
[04:20.34]is reading a longer text,
[04:22.18]often for pleasure with emphasis
[04:24.76]on overall meaning;
[04:27.84]is reading a short text
[04:29.20]for detailed information.
[04:31.21]However, the four skills are
[04:33.01]often subsumed into one—
[04:36.97]The most frequently
[04:38.54]encountered reason is
[04:39.64]that when you study
[04:41.20]a foreign language,
[04:42.49]you feel the urge
[04:43.78]to look up every word
[04:45.06]you don't understand
[04:46.41]and to pinpoint
[04:47.81]every structural point
[04:49.49]you see unfamiliar.
[04:51.64]To be aware of
[04:52.80]the different types of reading,
[04:54.19]ask yourselves about the types
[04:56.34]of reading you do
[04:58.02]in your first language.
[04:59.15]What's more, you must
[05:00.89]become familiar with the fact
[05:02.78]that texts may take
[05:04.23]on different forms
[05:05.51]and hold certain pieces of information
[05:07.94]in different places.
[05:09.41]Thus, it is necessary to understand
[05:11.57]the layout of the material
[05:13.49]being read in order to
[05:15.42]focus more deeply on the parts
[05:17.24]that are more
[05:18.16]densely compacted with information.
[05:20.18]Even paying attention to the year
[05:22.35]of publication of a text,
[05:25.56]may aid you in presuppositions
[05:27.85]about the text
[05:29.43]as can glancing at the name
[05:31.13]of the author.
[05:32.27]The tips I mentioned in pre-reading
[05:34.58]will not take a very long time
[05:36.44]to carry out.
[05:37.30]The purpose is to remind you
[05:39.37]to overcome the common urge
[05:41.30]to start reading a text closely
[05:43.71]right away from the beginning.
[05:46.65]about the pre-reading tips,
[05:48.35]of course we will move
[05:49.83]to the during-reading tips.
[05:52.18]What follows are tips
[05:53.80]that encourage active reading.
[05:55.72]They consist of summarizing,
[06:01.96]and placing a text within one's
[06:05.73]These processes may be
[06:07.40]the most complex
[06:08.50]to develop in a classroom setting,
[06:10.94]the reason being that
[06:12.50]in English reading classes
[06:15.11]is often paid to dictionaries,
[06:18.06]and the teacher.
[06:20.02]may interrupt this routine
[06:21.83]and encourage you to talk
[06:23.33]about what you are reading.
[06:25.31]I suggest the following strategies.
[06:28.06]① Make predictions as to
[06:30.26]what is going to happen next
[06:32.15]in the text and be able to integrate
[06:34.64]and combine what has come
[06:36.65]with what is to come.
[06:38.05]② Readers who are
[06:40.15]more proficient read selectively,
[06:42.13]continually making decisions
[06:44.35]about their reading.
[06:45.91]③ The prior knowledge
[06:47.84]that has been activated
[06:48.98]in the pre-reading section
[06:50.66]should be called up
[06:52.01]to facilitate comprehension.
[06:54.11]④ Concentrate on
[06:56.59]significant pieces of information
[06:58.74]while skipping insignificant pieces.
[07:01.49]⑤ Make use of context or guess.
[07:04.85]You are not encouraged to define
[07:06.96]and understand every single
[07:09.02]unknown word in a text.
[07:11.79]Instead you should learn
[07:13.21]to make use of context to guess
[07:15.86]the meaning of unknown words.
[07:18.26]⑥ Break words into
[07:20.14]their component parts
[07:21.19]to keep the process
[07:22.76]of comprehension ongoing.
[07:24.52]Efficient readers break words
[07:26.93]into their affixes or bases.
[07:29.43]These parts can help you
[07:30.94]guess the meaning of a word.
[07:32.89]⑦ Read in chunks.
[07:35.67]To ensure reading speed,
[07:38.06]you should get used to
[07:39.23]reading groups of words together.
[07:41.45]This act will also
[07:44.33]by focusing on groups
[07:46.30]of meaning-conveying symbols
[07:49.84]⑧ Learn to pause.
[07:52.29]Good readers will pause
[07:54.31]at certain places
[07:55.77]while reading a text to absorb
[07:57.75]and internalize the material
[08:00.60]and sort out information.
[08:05.15]While reading texts it may be
[08:07.41]necessary to paraphrase
[08:08.97]and interpret texts subvocally
[08:11.28]in order to verify what
[08:15.26]Finally, I will give you
[08:17.36]several after-reading tips.
[08:19.28]It is necessary to state
[08:21.22]that post-reading activities almost
[08:23.41]always depend on
[08:24.82]the purpose of reading.
[08:26.23]Doing post-reading exercises
[08:28.09]first checks your comprehension
[08:30.28]and then leads you to
[08:31.51]a deeper analysis of the text.
[08:33.84]In the real world
[08:35.59]the purpose of reading
[08:36.87]is not to memorize
[08:38.29]an author's point of view
[08:39.87]or to summarize text content,
[08:42.68]but rather to see
[08:44.11]into another mind,
[08:45.73]or to mesh new information
[08:47.83]with what one already knows.
[08:50.28]Group discussion will help you
[08:51.96]focus on information
[08:53.43]you did not comprehend,
[08:54.90]or comprehended incorrectly.
[08:57.28]Accordingly, attention will be
[08:59.60]focused on processes
[09:00.98]that lead to comprehension
[09:06.15]post-reading can take the form
[09:08.30]of various activities
[09:09.68]such as discussing the text,
[09:12.28]summarizing, making questions,
[09:14.63]filling in forms and charts,
[09:17.00]writing reading logs,
[09:18.86]role-playing and so on.
[09:20.64]OK. That's all for today's lecture.
[09:23.41]I hope these suggestions
[09:25.06]can be helpful during your reading.
[09:26.82]See you next week.
[09:30.32]Now, you have THREE minutes
[09:31.75]to check your work.
[12:33.64]This is the end
[12:34.44]of Section A Mini-lecture.
[12:38.06]SECTION B INTERVIEW
[12:40.64]In this section
[12:41.94]you will hear ONE interview.
[12:43.78]The interview will be
[12:45.43]divided into TWO parts.
[12:47.36]At the end of each part,
[12:49.38]five questions will be
[12:50.56]asked about what was said.
[12:52.20]Both the interview
[12:53.46]and the questions
[12:54.66]will be spoken ONCE ONLY.
[12:56.97]After each question
[12:58.47]there will be
[12:59.37]a ten-second pause.
[13:00.60]During the pause,
[13:01.70]you should read
[13:02.59]the four choices
[13:03.69]of A, B, C and D,
[13:06.70]and mark the best answer
[13:08.44]to each question
[13:09.59]on ANSWER SHEET TWO.
[13:11.48]You have THIRTY seconds
[13:12.93]to preview the questions.
[13:45.02]Now, listen to Part One
[13:46.47]of the interview.
[13:48.07]Questions 1 to 5
[13:49.37]are based on
[13:50.34]Part One of the interview.
[13:52.84]W: Many people
[13:53.58]dream of making it big,
[13:55.08]buying a bigger house,
[13:56.63]designer clothes and a nicer car,
[13:59.33]but with a record number
[14:02.34]now living right here
[14:03.61]in the United States,
[14:04.74]an age-old question
[14:06.33]is now front and center-
[14:07.80]can money really buy happiness?
[14:10.62]Best-selling author David Bach
[14:12.99]is a psychiatrist and a money advisor
[14:15.39]on CNBC's The Millionaire Inside.
[14:18.69]Going from rags to riches,
[14:21.65]he says he found happiness
[14:23.38]but it wasn't just about dollars
[14:27.81]M: Good morning, Maggie.
[14:29.75]W: What do you think
[14:31.26]that makes people happy then,
[14:33.14]if they have no money?
[14:34.43]M: Well, I think
[14:36.28]what most Americans really want
[14:39.26]We are in the land of the free,
[14:41.70]but when three out of four people
[14:43.52]are living paycheck to paycheck,
[14:45.15]they don't feel free.
[14:47.08]So I think there are
[14:48.45]a lot of opportunities
[14:49.79]for the average American
[14:51.21]to become what I call
[14:52.89]an automatic millionaire,
[14:55.51]which means paying yourself first,
[14:57.57]saving one hour a day
[14:59.76]of your income and spending less.
[15:02.36]W: Do you mean
[15:03.35]that people having different levels
[15:04.94]of life all have to do the same thing?
[15:09.04]In different levels of life,
[15:10.99]you have to survive all them,
[15:12.98]or someone really is living
[15:14.94]paycheck to paycheck.
[15:16.27]Then you have security,
[15:18.32]where someone as you
[15:19.74]might have basic means
[15:21.84]Maybe that gets six months
[15:23.59]to years with the expenses pre-set.
[15:26.43]Once you get past
[15:28.05]a year of expenses,
[15:29.22]you start to become free.
[15:31.14]W: You also say
[15:32.69]that happiness is not as simple
[15:34.40]as making more money.
[15:37.33]The more money you have,
[15:38.88]the more you are going to spend
[15:41.76]People don't know
[15:42.77]how to keep their money.
[15:44.49]And people don't know
[15:45.61]how to spend it wisely.
[15:47.51]W: We spend so much time
[15:49.10]in our lives trying
[15:50.49]to make money.
[15:51.57]We must believe
[15:52.72]it's going to bring us happiness.
[15:54.50]But the research
[15:56.14]you have ever done about it
[15:57.62]is a kind of mixed, isn't it?
[15:59.78]M: Well, the research is mixed.
[16:02.33]And I think
[16:03.62]part of the reason for that
[16:05.05]is that people acknowledge
[16:06.47]in their souls,
[16:07.53]if not in their wallets,
[16:08.93]that it won't make them happy.
[16:10.79]Most people don't marry for money;
[16:13.38]most people don't pursue careers
[16:16.29]simply for the money.
[16:17.89]There are a lot of teachers
[16:20.38]who won't trade their jobs
[16:21.87]for a sales job to make more.
[16:24.51]So we vote with our fit,
[16:26.97]in that sense.
[16:29.13]This is the end of
[16:29.97]Part One of the interview.
[16:32.17]Questions 1 to 5 are based on
[16:34.66]what you have just heard.
[16:36.37]1. What is David Bach's occupation?
[16:51.27]2. According to David Bach,
[16:54.44]what do most Americans really want?
[17:07.23]3. According to the interview,
[17:10.35]which of the following is
[17:11.65]NOT the way
[17:12.85]to become automatic millionaires?
[17:25.10]4. According to David Bach,
[17:28.23]why is happiness NOT as simple
[17:30.47]as making more money?
[17:42.01]5. What does David Bach say
[17:44.85]about the teachers in America?
[17:57.64]Now, listen to Part Two
[17:59.35]of the interview.
[18:00.90]Questions 6 to 10
[18:02.29]are based on
[18:03.14]Part Two of the interview.
[18:05.80]W: But the problem is
[18:07.02]we see all these people out there
[18:10.34]with the yachts,
[18:10.31]with the boats,
[18:11.61]the big houses,
[18:12.53]all of these.
[18:14.06]And we think we want that too.
[18:16.46]They look happy;
[18:17.62]they have all these conditions.
[18:19.64]How do you explain that?
[18:21.40]M: It looks that way.
[18:26.06]more billionaires than ever,
[18:27.70]and they have all the toys.
[18:29.92]But the research also indicates
[18:33.56]You can get somebody
[18:35.08]enough money to take them
[18:36.39]from poverty to middle class,
[18:38.26]which makes people happy,
[18:40.34]but a lot more money,
[18:41.82]to go from five hundred thousand
[18:44.08]to five million,
[18:45.46]doesn't make them happy.
[18:48.04]W: I agree.
[18:48.87]Money is going to
[18:50.78]have the more significant impact
[18:53.02]on those low income individuals.
[18:54.83]People who have very little
[18:56.53]are making 20 thousand dollars.
[18:58.84]They get from 20
[19:00.30]to 50 thousand dollars.
[19:02.28]That's going to
[19:03.42]have a big impact on them.
[19:05.22]M: That would.
[19:06.38]But I have never had anybody
[19:08.88]who comes in and says
[19:10.34]that he or she needs
[19:11.40]a little more money.
[19:12.74]It is all about:
[19:14.26]do I feel loved,
[19:15.80]and do I love something
[19:17.43]in the world.
[19:18.34]In other words,
[19:20.07]that does not speak to your heart
[19:21.92]but makes lots of money
[19:23.57]is a prescription for disaster.
[19:26.43]W: I've listened to the surveys
[19:28.10]of the kinds of jobs
[19:29.53]that make people the happiest;
[19:31.29]they aren't necessarily the jobs
[19:33.46]that pay the most money.
[19:35.38]They are things like teachers,
[19:42.32]M: I will still quote
[19:44.28]my own psychologist
[19:45.60]when I was in therapy.
[19:47.26]He said, the last place
[19:49.46]you want to be
[19:50.36]is in the first-class seat on a plane
[19:53.68]you don't want to go.
[19:57.52]It's really about feeling loved.
[20:00.05]The people who come to me
[20:01.70]were in the toughest spots.
[20:04.08]I am convinced
[20:05.57]they are well loved,
[20:06.72]and they are convinced
[20:08.18]there is something in the world
[20:09.57]that they genuinely have passion
[20:11.57]and love for.
[20:13.00]W: Good, passion is another thing
[20:15.54]that makes people happy.
[20:17.09]Health and passion.
[20:19.77]Health is at the top of the list
[20:22.56]in terms of what makes you happy.
[20:24.77]Having a good relationship
[20:27.17]having a lot of
[20:28.43]very close personal friends,
[20:29.98]having a good marriage,
[20:31.52]these are the types of things
[20:33.47]that make people happy.
[20:35.04]By the way, the health,
[20:36.87]money can help you
[20:38.69]buy happiness there,
[20:39.85]because money can give you access
[20:41.65]to the best health care in the world.
[20:44.11]But you still have to
[20:45.38]take care of yourselves.
[20:46.95]It can't make you healthier.
[20:49.33]And if you flip that around,
[20:51.66]then you get to the core
[20:53.34]of what really makes people happy.
[20:55.42]Because sometimes you have to
[20:57.42]take the negative
[20:58.43]to see that you are content now.
[21:00.57]So if people were to imagine
[21:02.73]that their children
[21:04.07]were not well got for being,
[21:05.19]then they would realize
[21:06.63]that they are pretty content
[21:08.24]even though their cars
[21:09.56]are years older than they'd like.
[21:11.95]W: Yes, no question.
[21:14.64]the age-old question.
[21:15.80]We continue to debate it still.
[21:19.81]M: Thank you, Maggie!
[21:20.62]This is the end of
[21:22.56]Part Two of the interview.
[21:24.53]Questions 6 to 10 are based on
[21:26.66]what you have just heard.
[21:28.32]6. What kind of people
[21:31.75]will be more significantly
[21:33.30]impacted on by money?
[21:45.43]7. Which of the following jobs
[21:49.31]the least happiness to people?
[22:01.15]8. What does the statement
[22:03.88]of David Bach's own psychologist
[22:17.13]9. According to David Bach,
[22:20.68]what is at the top of the list
[22:22.63]in terms of
[22:23.36]what makes people happy?
[22:35.13]10. What is mainly discussed
[22:37.93]in this part of the interview?