2019-01-09 10:34:21 来源：网络专四专八资料下载
[00:25.13]SECTION A MINI-LECTURE
[00:27.90]In this section
[00:28.92]you will hear a mini-lecture.
[00:30.93]You will hear
[00:31.83]the mini-lecture ONCE ONLY.
[00:34.27]While listening to the mini-lecture,
[00:36.35]please complete the gap-filling task
[00:38.72]on ANSWER SHEET ONE and write
[00:40.93]NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS
[00:42.78]for each gap.
[00:44.13]Make sure the word(s) you fill in
[00:47.44]is (are) both grammatically
[00:49.68]and semantically acceptable.
[00:52.68]You may use the blank sheet
[00:55.16]You have THIRTY seconds
[00:57.34]to preview the gap-filling task.
[01:29.55]Now listen to the mini-lecture.
[01:31.53]When it is over,
[01:32.67]you will be given THREE minutes
[01:34.51]to check your work.
[01:35.88]The Purposes of Literary Analysis
[01:39.81]Good morning, everyone.
[01:41.40]Today I'd like to talk
[01:42.64]about literary analysis,
[01:46.11]its three purposes.
[01:48.28]For the millennia during which
[01:49.91]literature has existed,
[01:53.50]and lay people
[01:55.05]have unceasingly engaged
[01:57.12]in the act of analyzing it.
[01:59.77]Whatever the variety
[02:00.95]of analytical approaches
[02:02.51]to literature might be,
[02:04.09]literary analysis is in itself
[02:07.18]a universal necessity
[02:09.31]when approaching a text,
[02:11.16]and cannot be escaped on some level,
[02:13.39]because literary analysis
[02:15.89]enables readers to fully grasp
[02:17.49]the core abstractions
[02:19.79]which an author has bestowed
[02:21.69]upon his work.
[02:24.45]it is indispensable
[02:26.11]in rendering the literature relevant,
[02:28.70]both to the individual's own life
[02:30.96]and to an understanding
[02:32.46]of the universal human condition.
[02:35.31]Now let's look at the first purpose
[02:36.75]of literary analysis:
[02:39.59]the author's basic premises.
[02:41.76]When any author
[02:43.50]creates a work of literature,
[02:45.31]he does so starting
[02:47.10]with a set of
[02:48.42]basic intellectual premises,
[02:52.40]the entirety of his work.
[02:54.55]The author has chosen
[02:55.76]to create a work of literature
[02:57.93]as a vehicle for transmitting
[02:59.93]those premises to his readers.
[03:02.82]On their own,
[03:03.99]as floating abstractions
[03:06.62]from the empirical observation
[03:08.86]and the detailed logical reasoning,
[03:11.50]the author's premises
[03:12.94]cannot be readily communicated
[03:14.91]to a reader
[03:16.02]who does not grasp them yet.
[03:19.19]who holds individualism
[03:20.81]as a basic premise,
[03:23.31]will find difficulty
[03:24.51]in communicating it
[03:26.13]by simply stating,
[03:27.52]"I believe in individualism."
[03:31.47]he offers a lucid analysis
[03:33.65]of the superiority of individualism
[03:36.17]over the alternatives,
[03:37.99]which is filled
[03:39.11]with realistic examples
[03:40.67]of why this is so,
[03:42.18]then his convictions
[03:43.64]become far more persuasive.
[03:47.37]he might write a story,
[03:49.01]a series of rationally
[03:50.67]structured fictional events,
[03:52.95]which a reader could approach
[03:54.30]as if it were a concrete experience.
[03:57.03]All knowledge, at its root,
[03:59.14]is derived from sensory experience
[04:03.94]Thus, a work of literature,
[04:05.47]by recreating an environment
[04:07.45]of observation through the events
[04:09.60]and descriptions within it,
[04:11.53]aims to allow the reader
[04:13.46]to tap into the source of the premises
[04:16.20]the author seeks to communicate.
[04:19.34]the reader is given the foundation
[04:21.52]from which to proceed to understand
[04:26.14]with the author's abstract ideas.
[04:28.68]When the reader sees a literary text
[04:32.26]the author has already done the work
[04:34.54]of translating his guiding premises
[04:36.75]into a concrete presentation.
[04:39.82]The task of the reader, then,
[04:41.97]becomes to fathom
[04:43.84]the concrete presentation
[04:45.21]in such a manner
[04:46.58]as to derive the abstract premises
[04:51.68]in an act of intellectual discovery
[04:53.92]which the author has facilitated for him.
[04:57.10]All literary analysis is,
[05:00.68]such a process of discovery.
[05:02.89]It aims toward an understanding
[05:05.03]of the author's guiding abstractions
[05:07.14]by identifying literary concretes-
[05:10.53]the characters, events,
[05:15.13]and stated ideas of a narrative-
[05:17.89]and discerning their relevance
[05:19.70]to the work as a whole
[05:21.37]and its central themes.
[05:24.42]in writing a work of literature,
[05:26.32]the author begins
[05:27.56]at the abstract level and,
[05:30.43]crafts the concretes of his narrative,
[05:33.43]the reader must begin
[05:34.75]at the concrete level
[05:36.82]and reach the level of abstraction
[05:38.90]via literary analysis.
[05:41.68]The second purpose
[05:42.93]of literary analysis
[05:44.46]is to attain individual value
[05:46.91]from the literary work.
[05:48.66]A work of literary merit
[05:50.52]must offer an insight,
[05:52.15]principle, or example
[05:54.21]valuable to the individual reader.
[05:56.89]Aside from discovering
[05:58.22]the author's intentions
[05:59.71]and guiding principles
[06:01.11]in writing a work,
[06:02.48]the reader must inquire
[06:05.14]"What benefits to my own life
[06:07.78]and understanding might I extract
[06:09.96]from this text?"
[06:11.23]The insights the reader might seek
[06:13.44]to derive through literary analysis
[06:15.75]can be positive or negative.
[06:18.74]A text can offer models to emulate,
[06:21.58]or examples of
[06:22.94]what not to apply to one's own life.
[06:25.87]The reader can even disagree
[06:27.75]with the author's world view
[06:29.58]or ideas of desirable conduct and,
[06:32.51]through literary analysis,
[06:34.74]discover the root of his divergence
[06:37.49]from the author.
[06:38.58]In this respect,
[06:39.71]the undertaking of literary analysis
[06:42.20]is necessarily didactic,
[06:44.57]even if the author
[06:45.75]did not create his text
[06:47.33]with a didactic purpose.
[06:51.17]is a process of cognitive discrimination,
[06:54.11]in that the reader must be selective
[06:56.93]in what he does and does not derive
[06:58.79]from the author's premises.
[07:01.08]In analyzing a text,
[07:03.42]the reader interacts with these premises
[07:05.80]by filtering them through his own.
[07:08.43]Now let's move to the third purpose
[07:10.95]of literary analysis:
[07:12.82]to derive from it knowledge
[07:15.29]concerning the universal
[07:18.11]Aside from individual relevance,
[07:20.52]a worthy work of literature
[07:22.31]has a universal relevance,
[07:24.92]either to an aspect at the core
[07:26.25]of the general human condition,
[07:28.68]or at the root
[07:29.83]of some widespread field
[07:31.64]of human endeavor.
[07:34.23]as a human being,
[07:35.24]enters the writing process
[07:36.79]with certain assumptions,
[07:38.12]implicit or explicit,
[07:40.30]regarding a set
[07:41.46]of universal human themes,
[07:43.44]including the nature of life,
[07:47.30]and human action,
[07:49.24]the meaning and possibility
[07:51.09]of success and happiness,
[07:52.99]and the status
[07:54.31]of the individual himself.
[07:57.64]the author might hold a set of views
[07:59.91]which are more narrowly targeted,
[08:02.16]but still potentially relevant
[08:04.63]to a wide variety of human beings.
[08:07.11]While the conflict
[08:08.52]between the individual
[08:09.84]and the almighty totalitarian state
[08:12.45]in George Orwell's 1984,
[08:16.69]is not a universal history,
[08:19.41]Orwell used it to arrive
[08:21.48]at an understanding of the meaning
[08:23.28]of a universal human concept,
[08:26.74]He then used this understanding
[08:30.13]through the eyes of Winston Smith,
[08:32.51]the manner in which a totalitarian state
[08:35.57]necessarily robs an individual
[08:37.15]of his freedom and,
[08:40.54]his very humanity.
[08:42.73]The task of the reader
[08:44.35]in conducting literary analysis
[08:46.52]becomes to discover the pathway
[08:48.81]by which the specifics
[08:50.77]of a given literary presentation
[08:52.64]can arrive at truths
[08:54.37]which are relevant
[08:55.34]to humans in general.
[08:57.58]The truths thus discovered
[08:59.60]will transcend the accidents of time,
[09:03.66]and geographical location.
[09:07.55]such a comprehensive
[09:09.18]universal understanding is valuable,
[09:11.74]irrespective of the reader's agreement
[09:14.20]with the author's approach
[09:15.56]to the human condition.
[09:17.14]If the reader is of a different opinion,
[09:19.31]he can simply use his knowledge
[09:21.91]of the author's world view
[09:24.31]to pinpoint where
[09:25.24]and how he disagrees with it.
[09:27.31]Thus, the reader,
[09:28.77]through literary analysis,
[09:31.28]will still attain
[09:32.59]his own positive understanding
[09:34.33]of the essential
[09:35.18]and inescapable issues
[09:37.00]pertaining to man.
[09:39.00]OK, today we have discussed
[09:41.55]three purposes of literary analysis:
[09:44.25]to discover the author's
[09:47.18]to attain individual value
[09:49.82]from the literary work,
[09:51.28]and to derive from it knowledge
[09:54.22]concerning the universal
[09:58.41]like any other systematic approach
[10:01.20]offers the demystification of ideas
[10:03.87]and of reality.
[10:05.68]Instead of being perpetually confined
[10:07.95]by a set of irresolvable
[10:09.84]questions and dilemmas,
[10:11.38]man can obtain the answers
[10:13.54]through literary analysis,
[10:15.72]by means of a deliberate,
[10:18.75]rational treatment of the text.
[10:21.13]If the reader finishes a text
[10:22.24]with greater knowledge,
[10:25.22]and confidence in his world view
[10:27.23]than he had upon starting it,
[10:29.60]then literary analysis has fulfilled
[10:32.31]its most essential role.
[10:34.68]Thank you for listening.
[10:37.56]Now, you have THREE minutes
[10:39.06]to check your work.
[13:39.60]This is the end of
[13:40.50]Section A Mini-lecture.
[13:43.66]SECTION B INTERVIEW
[13:46.00]In this section
[13:46.84]you will hear ONE interview.
[13:49.77]will be divided into TWO parts.
[13:52.06]At the end of each part,
[13:53.77]five questions will be asked
[13:55.65]about what was said.
[13:57.30]Both the interview
[13:58.47]and the questions
[13:59.46]will be spoken ONCE ONLY.
[14:02.01]After each question
[14:03.58]there will be a ten-second pause.
[14:06.51]During the pause,
[14:07.89]you should read the four choices
[14:09.96]of A, B, C and D,
[14:12.27]and mark the best answer
[14:14.00]to each question
[14:15.11]on ANSWER SHEET TWO.
[14:17.28]You have THIRTY seconds
[14:18.99]to preview the questions.
[14:51.22]Now, listen to Part One
[14:52.70]of the interview.
[14:54.37]Questions 1 to 5 are based on
[14:56.60]Part One of the interview.
[15:00.14]M: Welcome to our program.
[15:02.08]Students today learn
[15:03.50]how to use computers as early
[15:05.70]as age 5 or 6.
[15:08.44]They are also spending
[15:10.01]more time online,
[15:11.60]surfing the web, e-mailing,
[15:13.02]twittering, playing games,
[15:15.59]using Facebook, etc.
[15:18.38]Rumor has it
[15:19.43]that some even use the Internet
[15:21.17]to research term papers.
[15:23.64]The question I'd like us
[15:25.43]to consider today is,
[15:27.03]are people spending
[15:28.35]too much time
[15:29.47]on their computers?
[15:31.22]Our honored guest today
[15:32.77]is Ms. Kate from
[15:34.57]National Psychiatrist Association.
[15:37.31]W: Thank you.
[15:38.87]As you have just mentioned,
[15:40.63]some doctors believe
[15:41.95]that people nowadays
[15:43.56]spend too much time
[15:44.81]on the Internet and they
[15:46.53]sometimes misuse the Internet,
[15:49.17]the same way
[15:50.38]people drink too much
[15:51.52]or gamble too much.
[15:52.72]They call this problem
[15:54.59]Internet Addiction Disorder,
[15:57.01]or IAD for short.
[16:00.59]We even gained ourselves
[16:02.16]a new term
[16:03.05]for our indulgence in the Internet.
[16:05.38]But what are the symptoms of IAD?
[16:08.91]W: The doctors have identified
[16:11.90]of Internet Addiction Disorder.
[16:13.91]The first sign is
[16:15.38]that a person wants
[16:16.61]more and more time
[16:18.22]on the Internet.
[16:19.30]One hour is not enough;
[16:21.03]it's got to be two or three.
[16:22.94]M: You are quite right.
[16:25.67]I have exactly the same feeling
[16:27.65]that time flies
[16:28.85]when you surf the Internet.
[16:31.67]the second sign relates to
[16:32.92]what happens to people
[16:34.29]if they cannot get on the Internet.
[16:36.45]They might, um,
[16:38.24]dream about the Internet.
[16:39.49]During these dreams,
[16:41.02]their bodies might tremble,
[16:42.68]and their fingers might move as
[16:44.93]if they were typing.
[16:46.11]M: Sounds like they were
[16:47.82]living in hallucination.
[16:49.07]W: That is the exact word!
[16:51.45]The third sign is
[16:52.91]that they need to use the Internet
[16:54.88]to stop these things
[16:56.33]from happening to their bodies.
[16:58.12]In the same way that a few drinks
[17:00.34]will steady an alcoholic,
[17:02.09]being on the Internet actually
[17:04.42]improves the way their bodies feel.
[17:06.80]M: Sounds familiar.
[17:08.26]What a shame!
[17:09.52]W: And fourth,
[17:11.48]people with IAD use the Internet
[17:14.33]more often and stay online
[17:16.99]longer than they intended.
[17:19.04]they might go online to check e-mail,
[17:21.19]but three or four hours later,
[17:23.31]they are still there,
[17:24.63]chatting or surfing the web,
[17:27.91]M: Like what I have said,
[17:29.51]time flies on the Internet.
[17:32.03]Sometimes, I go right into midnight
[17:34.19]over the Internet
[17:35.33]without any knowledge of it.
[17:37.16]W: Yeah. And number five,
[17:39.37]people spend a large amount
[17:40.93]of time doing things
[17:42.32]related to the Internet.
[17:43.97]They might, um,
[17:45.80]read books about the Internet,
[17:47.73]for instance, or download
[17:49.74]new Internet programs,
[17:54.10]M: I bet these kinds of behavior
[17:56.55]not only cost a lot of time
[17:58.55]but also a big sum of money.
[18:00.85]W: You can say that again.
[18:02.59]The sixth sign of IAD is
[18:04.99]that people substitute online time
[18:07.56]for social activities.
[18:09.56]Frankly, they prefer communicating
[18:13.08]rather than face-to-face.
[18:15.08]M: So have I noticed
[18:16.64]that there are fewer and fewer
[18:19.17]W: Yes, and the last sign is
[18:21.27]that Internet use becomes
[18:24.35]than almost anything else—
[18:27.42]losing a job,
[18:29.34]and even eating yourself.
[18:32.01]People will also lie
[18:34.01]about how much time
[18:35.22]they are spending online,
[18:36.80]and they will keep
[18:38.23]using the Internet even
[18:39.92]if they are punished for it.
[18:41.91]This is the end
[18:43.67]of Part One of the interview.
[18:46.20]Questions 1 to 5 are based on
[18:48.29]what you have just heard.
[18:50.26]1. What is the interview
[19:05.52]2. What happens to the people
[19:09.73]if they can't get on the Internet?
[19:22.43]3. How does the woman
[19:23.69]explain the third sign of IAD?
[19:37.37]4. What does the woman say
[19:39.76]about people with IAD
[19:41.43]using the Internet?
[19:53.27]5. Which is NOT a thing
[19:55.96]related to the Internet people
[19:58.11]with IAD do?
[20:09.82]Now, listen to Part Two
[20:11.39]of the interview.
[20:12.91]Questions 6 to 10 are based on
[20:14.93]Part Two of the interview.
[20:18.36]M: Oh my god,
[20:19.43]all of these sound so familiar.
[20:21.80]But what should we do
[20:23.52]if the signs of IAD begin to emerge?
[20:26.96]W: Don't panic.
[20:27.98]Some doctors discount
[20:29.56]the notion of IAD.
[20:31.44]They claim that IAD is not
[20:33.74]the same as drug addiction,
[20:35.30]because the Internet is
[20:36.81]a useful tool for getting information,
[20:39.15]and also a multi-faceted tool
[20:43.35]M: So you mean, um,
[20:45.15]addiction to the Internet is not
[20:48.65]W: What I am saying is
[20:50.07]that there is so much to do online
[20:52.06]that it takes a lot of time.
[20:54.55]If we think about
[20:56.03]that for a minute,
[20:57.10]it makes some sense.
[20:59.19]My, um, my husband, for example,
[21:01.48]uses the Internet for just
[21:05.22]The computer for him is
[21:06.60]a communication center,
[21:08.31]television, office, store,
[21:10.11]and music player.
[21:11.32]Yet still, most people agree
[21:13.18]that it's not good to spend
[21:14.81]too much time on the Internet.
[21:16.85]Everything in moderation, right?
[21:19.23]M: I once read in a US newspaper
[21:21.83]that a woman was
[21:22.95]on the Internet so often
[21:24.31]that her husband left her,
[21:26.23]and she forgot to buy food
[21:27.79]for her children.
[21:29.54]A Chinese magazine also
[21:31.66]told stories of children
[21:32.93]who skipped school
[21:34.12]and stayed in cybercafés all day.
[21:37.47]It is said that some of them
[21:40.09]and their hands became numb.
[21:42.17]W: Tragedies like these do
[21:43.87]happen almost every day.
[21:45.74]M: So what can be done
[21:47.27]to help people like this?
[21:49.30]W: Sadly though, well,
[21:51.00]doctors aren't sure. IAD is new,
[21:54.31]so they do not have
[21:55.85]much experience in treating it.
[21:58.25]Some are trying programs
[21:59.97]similar to those
[22:01.18]that help people stop
[22:02.34]smoking and gambling.
[22:04.89]the doctor who invented
[22:06.48]the term IAD,
[22:08.04]says people who think
[22:09.70]they might be addicted to
[22:10.86]the Internet should try to
[22:13.72]M: Can you explain
[22:14.88]Dr. Goldberg's advice in detail?
[22:17.71]W: Sure. First,
[22:19.50]Goldberg advises them
[22:20.47]to examine their patterns
[22:22.10]of Internet use.
[22:23.57]They should know
[22:24.72]how much time they spend
[22:26.15]on the computer,
[22:27.47]and also should
[22:28.40]ask themselves how often they think
[22:30.78]about the Internet.
[22:32.34]M: To put the first advice
[22:34.32]into simple words:
[22:35.41]time control. Am I right?
[22:38.39]W: Absolutely. Then they should ask
[22:40.93]why they use the computer
[22:43.66]are they escaping from a problem
[22:46.65]M: Which means they have to
[22:48.23]question themselves now and then?
[22:50.39]W: Yes. And the third step is
[22:53.42]to make a plan to solve the problem,
[22:55.90]as opposed to just ignoring it.
[22:57.79]Finally, they should make a plan
[23:00.09]to reduce their Internet use,
[23:02.46]such as trying to reduce
[23:04.17]their computer time
[23:05.42]a little bit each day.
[23:06.79]Doctor Samuel Augusti
[23:08.73]who has studied IAD says
[23:11.27]it's important to keep a balanced life.
[23:13.88]M: I totally agree with this doctor.
[23:17.09]Time on the Internet should not
[23:19.91]from doing other things they like,
[23:22.07]and it should not cause people
[23:24.27]to miss spending time
[23:25.37]with their family and friends.
[23:27.40]W: You are right.
[23:28.45]This is the end
[23:30.82]of Part Two of the interview.
[23:33.17]Questions 6 to 10 are based on
[23:35.77]what you have just heard.
[23:37.25]6. Why do some doctors claim
[23:41.67]that IAD is NOT
[23:43.39]the same as drug addiction?
[23:55.45]7. What is most people's opinion
[23:58.67]on using the Internet?
[24:10.82]8. Which of the following statements
[24:13.18]about treating IAD is TRUE?
[24:26.50]9. What should Internet addicts
[24:29.59]do first to get rid of IAD,
[24:32.21]according to Dr. Goldberg?
[24:44.12]10. What does Samuel Augusti