2019-01-11 16:54:38 来源：网络专四专八资料下载
[00:25.39]SECTION A MINI-LECTURE
[00:28.26]In this section
[00:29.45]you will hear a mini-lecture.
[00:31.53]You will hear the mini-lecture
[00:34.57]While listening to the mini-lecture,
[00:36.43]please complete the gap-filling task
[00:38.71]on ANSWER SHEET ONE and write
[00:40.73]NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS
[00:42.52]for each gap.
[00:44.45]Make sure the word(s) you fill in
[00:47.27]is (are) both grammatically
[00:49.71]and semantically acceptable.
[00:52.81]You may use the blank sheet
[00:56.18]You have THIRTY seconds
[00:57.70]to preview the gap-filling task.
[01:29.69]Now listen to the mini-lecture.
[01:31.80]When it is over,
[01:33.05]you will be given THREE minutes
[01:34.66]to check your work.
[01:36.55]Writing an Argumentative Essay
[01:39.43]Good morning, everyone.
[01:40.90]Today's lecture is
[01:42.45]about how to write
[01:44.15]an argumentative essay.
[01:45.76]An argumentative essay presents
[01:47.54]an argument backed by
[01:50.49]and articulated views
[01:52.01]to persuade the reader
[01:53.78]or an opposite side.
[01:56.35]An argumentative essay
[01:57.78]should ordinarily contain three parts:
[02:02.11]the body and the conclusion.
[02:04.88]and the details of the parts,
[02:06.36]obviously, will depend
[02:08.25]on the assignment,
[02:09.40]the media or even the audience
[02:11.50]it is directed to.
[02:13.25]A newspaper article, for instance,
[02:15.62]will have to consider the size
[02:17.15]of the space given
[02:18.40]and the readership,
[02:19.80]while a college paper will
[02:21.02]be assigned a certain number
[02:24.06]The introduction should
[02:25.12]have a brief explanation of the topic,
[02:27.35]some background information
[02:28.89]and a thesis statement.
[02:31.08]In this case, the thesis statement
[02:33.13]will be a statement
[02:34.15]of the writer's position
[02:35.81]on the topic being discussed.
[02:38.28]In the body of the essay,
[02:39.90]the writer will present both sides
[02:41.94]of the controversy.
[02:43.90]Thus the body of the essay
[02:45.59]should contain all the arguments
[02:49.07]on both sides of the coin.
[02:51.24]A〝fair〞 argument presents
[02:52.94]the strongest points
[02:54.20] of the counter-side of the issue
[02:57.45]This is followed by
[02:58.67]a well-presented counter-argument
[03:01.14]that neatly shoots down
[03:02.77]each point raised.
[03:04.79]After this presentation,
[03:06.35]the position of the writer
[03:09.23]supported with evidence to show
[03:10.80]why it is the correct position to take.
[03:14.21]In the conclusion,
[03:15.40]the writer's position is
[03:16.70]restated as the most convincing one
[03:20.39]of course the data, sources
[03:22.34]and how well it is
[03:23.21]presented should be helpful
[03:24.99]in winning the reader
[03:26.16]to his side of the argument.
[03:28.76]When you are assigned
[03:29.63]an argumentative essay
[03:31.40]it does not have to
[03:32.24]be a daunting task.
[03:34.52]Break up the work into several tasks
[03:36.60]and never procrastinate.
[03:38.87]Try not to do the entire essay
[03:40.70]in a single day.
[03:42.56]Use the following steps as a guide,
[03:45.16]take your time,
[03:46.09]and you will have success.
[03:48.56]1. Choose your topic.
[03:51.43]Your instructor may have
[03:52.65]a preselected list of topics
[03:54.49]for you to choose from.
[03:56.65]This will help narrow down
[03:59.62]Choose a topic
[04:00.68]that you are already familiar with
[04:02.51]if you can.
[04:04.04]Also, choose something
[04:05.70]that you are interested in
[04:08.45]It will make the process
[04:09.76]much more enjoyable.
[04:12.03]2. Find a question or point to argue
[04:15.38]within your topic.
[04:17.18]Be sure that there will be
[04:18.51]plenty of sources
[04:19.62]that you can refer to for research.
[04:22.55]If it is a very unusual
[04:24.55]or weak argument,
[04:26.34]you will not find enough evidence
[04:27.89]to back up your claim.
[04:31.10]3. Once you have chosen
[04:33.04]your topic and argument,
[04:35.62]it is time to research.
[04:37.98]Spend plenty of time
[04:39.38]scouring your school's library,
[04:41.80]as well as your public library.
[04:44.16]Do not rely solely
[04:45.83]on Internet sources,
[04:47.70]And if you do use the Internet,
[04:50.48]that your sources are reliable.
[04:53.36]Find your evidence from
[04:54.55]not only secondary sources
[04:56.31](text books, etc.),
[04:58.42]but from primary sources as well.
[05:01.37]These include documents s
[05:03.10]uch as letters,
[05:05.78]and government papers.
[05:07.76]You want to back up your argument
[05:09.48]with a variety
[05:10.46]of rich and reliable sources.
[05:13.36]4. Go through your research.
[05:16.63]Take notes, or make cue cards,
[05:18.83]each with one point,
[05:20.00]or one quotation.
[05:21.97]Try to be very organized so
[05:23.90]that things are simple and easy
[05:26.38]to access once you start writing
[05:29.96] Be sure to choose 5 or 6
[05:32.17]of the strongest pieces of evidence
[05:34.20]that back up your argument.
[05:36.60]There is no need to
[05:37.53]overload your paper.
[05:39.56]If you have several convincing points
[05:41.59]backing you up
[05:42.89](as opposed to 15 weaker points),
[05:46.21]then stick with them and expand.
[05:49.12]5. Write an outline of your paper.
[05:52.33]The basic outline is very simple—
[05:55.64]body, and conclusion.
[05:57.80]Sketch out your paper,
[05:59.51]and put in point form
[06:00.53]what you want to say
[06:02.09]in each paragraph.
[06:04.28]6. Write your paper.
[06:06.98]Begin with a strong
[06:07.98]and clear opening sentence
[06:10.24]that catches the interest
[06:11.35]of your reader.
[06:12.61]Present what you are arguing,
[06:14.58]and give the reader a taste
[06:15.84]of what your paper is about.
[06:18.42]It is very important
[06:19.62]that your thesis statement
[06:20.98] (argument) is very clear
[06:23.31]and is written in a single sentence,
[06:25.87]preferably as the first
[06:27.33]or the final sentence
[06:28.95]of the introductory paragraph.
[06:31.39]The body of your paper
[06:32.63]should be several paragraphs.
[06:35.86]should present evidence
[06:37.37]that supports the argument.
[06:39.40]Once you feel you have covered
[06:41.03]the most important points
[06:42.66]and have fully argued the thesis,
[06:45.13]then move on to your conclusion.
[06:47.61]The conclusion is a brief summary
[06:49.12]of your paper
[06:50.72]and should reiterate your argument.
[06:53.80]7. Pay attention to the details.
[06:57.26]All the 〝little〞 things
[06:58.57]will not only have an impact on
[07:01.49]but they will also have an effect on
[07:04.29]and authority as an essay writer.
[07:07.11]A well written and researched essay
[07:09.05]must include great attention
[07:12.48]If you have any questions
[07:14.84]while writing your paper,
[07:16.56]be sure to talk to your instructor.
[07:19.21]They are a very reliable source
[07:21.32]that can help you get on track.
[07:24.09]Once you have polished
[07:25.45]and perfected your essay,
[07:27.16]then hand it in with pride,
[07:29.34]and expect positive results.
[07:32.33]OK, the above are several steps
[07:34.60]you can follow
[07:35.49]to write an argumentative essay,
[07:38.09]from choosing a topic
[07:39.46]and finding the argument to
[07:41.05]doing the research
[07:42.69]and writing the paper.
[07:45.44]great attention should be given
[07:46.84]to the details
[07:47.90]during the process of writing.
[07:51.70]we'll discuss other kinds
[07:53.40]of writing successively.
[07:55.57]Now, you have THREE minutes
[07:57.92]to check your work.
[10:57.78]This is the end
[10:58.74]of Section A Mini-lecture.
[11:01.83]SECTION B INTERVIEW
[11:04.16]In this section
[11:05.26]you will hear ONE interview.
[11:07.44]The interview will be
[11:08.53]divided into TWO parts.
[11:10.76]At the end of each part,
[11:12.14]five questions will be
[11:13.75]asked about what was said.
[11:15.87]Both the interview
[11:16.84]and the questions
[11:18.08]will be spoken ONCE ONLY.
[11:20.60]After each question
[11:22.29]there will be
[11:22.97]a ten-second pause.
[11:25.03]During the pause,
[11:26.26]you should read
[11:27.22]the four choices
[11:28.32]of A, B, C and D,
[11:30.87]and mark the best answer
[11:32.35]to each question
[11:33.66]on ANSWER SHEET TWO.
[11:35.81]You have THIRTY seconds
[11:37.65]to preview the questions.
[12:09.42]Now, listen to Part One
[12:10.91]of the interview.
[12:12.58]Questions 1 to 5
[12:14.00]are based on
[12:15.00]Part One of the interview.
[12:18.54]M: This morning on Today's Health,
[12:20.84]we are going to pump you up.
[12:23.47]You know, working out
[12:25.02]is obviously good for your body,
[12:27.65]but this week's
[12:28.33]Newsweek Magazine reports
[12:30.66]there is new evidence
[12:31.81]showing it can boost your brainpower
[12:34.71]and fight disease as well.
[12:37.24]Miriam Nelson is an associate professor
[12:39.44]at the Friedman School of Nutrition
[12:41.37]at Tufts University.
[12:43.31]Miriam, nice to see you,
[12:44.97]how are you doing?
[12:46.40]W: Very well.
[12:47.39]Thanks for having me.
[12:49.08]M: So, we are talking about rigorous,
[12:53.31]clearly good for your body.
[12:55.41]Explain to me in layman's terms
[12:57.67]if you can now,
[12:59.10]about this new research
[13:00.55]that says it can also help your brain
[13:03.33]grow new nerve cells.
[13:05.51]W: That's right.
[13:06.86]What we've known for years
[13:08.21]is that individuals
[13:09.82]who are physically active
[13:11.40]have reduced risk
[13:12.49]of getting Alzheimer's disease.
[13:15.04]We've also known
[13:16.07]that people with
[13:16.81]mild cognitive impairment
[13:18.78]also have improved function
[13:22.12]There's some very new research
[13:23.65]that is very exciting.
[13:25.71]And what is seen is
[13:27.13]it's taken 11 individuals,
[13:29.41]and put them
[13:30.26]on a about three or four
[13:31.85]months' course of aerobic exercise,
[13:34.42]four days a week,
[13:35.50]an hour a day.
[13:37.11]And what they've seen
[13:38.54]through MRI Scan
[13:39.89]is people are actually
[13:41.18]growing new nerve cells.
[13:43.69]M: And…and more new nerve cells
[13:46.33]mean what to me,
[13:48.01]someone in my age group?
[13:50.53]what you are…what…
[13:52.06]my age group too.
[13:53.96]M: OK, our age group too,
[13:57.43]W: What we are seeing is
[13:58.70]that the new nerve cells
[14:01.44]They're increasing a web
[14:02.90]and they're weaved
[14:03.95]and they are connecting.
[14:05.93]It's all the interconnections
[14:07.41]of the nerve cells.
[14:09.44]When you get those connections,
[14:11.10]your brain functions better.
[14:13.10]Primarily this is
[14:14.37]in the executive functioning part
[14:16.29]of the brain in the hippocampus.
[14:18.57]We are looking at multitasking,
[14:20.42]memory, problem solving,
[14:23.83]lots of things
[14:24.69]that start to decline
[14:25.93]as we get older.
[14:27.80]M: I am sure a lot of people
[14:29.05]are watching this right now,
[14:32.40]Can I make up for the lost time?
[14:34.98]I don't have a history of exercising
[14:37.02]throughout my life.
[14:38.85]Now I'm 45 years old,
[14:41.14]if I start exercising now,
[14:43.48]do I make a difference?
[14:45.30]W: Well, certainly.
[14:46.78]The data we show right now is
[14:48.71]exercising in your 40s and 50s.
[14:51.68]Hopefully we wanna start
[14:53.08]a little bit early,
[14:54.34]but in your 30s,
[14:55.33]40s and 50s,
[14:56.75]it will make a difference
[14:58.15]for reducing the risk
[14:59.18]of getting Alzheimer
[15:00.54]as you get older.
[15:02.22]And there's even newer research
[15:04.94]that is also very exciting.
[15:07.96]This is the end of
[15:08.94]Part One of the interview.
[15:11.09]Questions 1 to 5 are based on
[15:13.48]what you have just heard.
[15:15.65]1. What is the topic of this interview?
[15:29.88]2. What is Miriam Nelson?
[15:43.00]3. According to the interview,
[15:46.02]what is the benefit
[15:47.07]of doing exercise?
[15:58.92]4. Which of the following statements
[16:02.01]about the new research is INCORRECT?
[16:14.73]5. According to the interview,
[16:17.91]what do more nerve cells mean?
[16:30.28]Now, listen to Part Two
[16:31.78]of the interview.
[16:33.38]Questions 6 to 10
[16:34.79]are based on
[16:35.64]Part Two of the interview.
[16:38.57]M: Let me switch gears now
[16:40.14]and turn into the subject
[16:41.61]of the connection
[16:42.51]between rigorous exercise
[16:44.78]and preventing breast cancer.
[16:47.46]And, specifically I am talking
[16:49.40]about estrogen negative breast cancers.
[16:52.69]A study showed
[16:53.62]that there was a drop
[16:54.59]between 26 and 40 percent
[16:56.65]even if you take the lower end
[16:58.40]of that spectrum.
[17:00.24]That is significant.
[17:02.14]W: It's a very large decrease.
[17:04.28]So, one of the first studies
[17:05.86]with the Nurse's Health Study
[17:07.76]followed 3,000 people
[17:09.37]for 14 years and they saw
[17:12.21]a between 26 to 40 percent decrease
[17:15.25]in death and recurrence
[17:17.88]who already had breast cancer.
[17:20.19]This newest study,
[17:21.44]the California Teacher Study,
[17:23.49]followed 110,000 women
[17:26.28]from the earlier mid-90s
[17:28.24]up until 2002 and they saw
[17:31.23]that the women
[17:32.09]that were exercising the most
[17:33.83]had the greatest reduction
[17:35.08]in breast cancer,
[17:36.86]as you said, about 31 percent,
[17:39.66]about 5 hours a week.
[17:42.18]M: What about the impact
[17:43.32]of exercise on
[17:44.47]estrogen positive cancers?
[17:47.30]W: Well, the studies before
[17:48.94]and the school's latest study
[17:50.81]have not really differentiated
[17:52.66]between the two.
[17:54.12]We've always thought
[17:55.11]that it was through estrogen,
[17:56.61]because when you exercise,
[17:58.38]you have lower levels of estrogen,
[18:01.12]so we thought that was a reason
[18:03.00]that you got the decrease.
[18:04.96]This California Teacher Study
[18:06.64]was in the estrogen negative,
[18:08.49]um, type of cancer.
[18:10.43]So it seems,
[18:11.31]at the moment,
[18:12.22]that's just one study,
[18:13.73]so, at the moment,
[18:14.88]it's really looking like
[18:16.22]it's all types of breast cancer.
[18:19.15]M: So to wrap things up
[18:20.61]for a woman
[18:21.42]who gets a diagnosis
[18:22.58]of breast cancer is difficult.
[18:25.30]Does it make sound the first thing
[18:27.16]you would tell that woman to do
[18:28.79]is go out and start exercising?
[18:31.58]W: Well, see your doctor
[18:33.33]and get a very good medical team
[18:35.47]and then make sure
[18:36.34]that exercise is an adjunct to that,
[18:39.04]and the research that we are doing
[18:40.74]at the Friedman School is showing
[18:42.56]that we can get
[18:43.50]a lot of people exercising.
[18:45.95]So, um, it's really important
[18:48.03]for your brain as well as
[18:49.51]reducing your risk of breast cancer.
[18:52.00]And as a woman
[18:52.94]with a history of Alzheimer
[18:54.46]in my family,
[18:55.84]I am certainly gonna
[18:59.34]M: A lot of people are gonna
[19:00.55]pay attention to it.
[19:05.08]good to have you here.
[19:06.52]W: Oh, my pleasure.
[19:08.80]This is the end of
[19:10.16]Part Two of the interview.
[19:11.96]Questions 6 to 10 are based on
[19:14.23]what you have just heard.
[19:16.53]6. What is the connection
[19:20.98]and preventing breast cancer?
[19:33.31]7. According to
[19:35.14]the California Teacher Study,
[19:37.38]what percentage of decrease
[19:38.91]in breast cancer
[19:40.07]did the women who exercised
[19:41.92]5 hours a week have?
[19:53.85]8. According to Miriam Nelson,
[19:57.05]what have they thought
[19:58.06]was the reason of breast cancer?
[20:10.48]9. What did
[20:12.20]the California Teacher Study study?
[20:24.84]10. What is the first thing
[20:27.43]a woman should do
[20:28.61]if she gets a diagnosis
[20:30.13]of breast cancer?