2019-02-03 09:36:09 来源：网络专四专八资料下载
[00:10.12]TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS--GRADE EIGHT
[00:13.51]Section A MINI-LECTURE
[00:16.97]In this section you will hear a mini-lecture.
[00:20.29]You will hear the mini-lecture ONCE ONLY.
[00:23.73]While listening to the mini-lecture,
[00:25.82]please complete the gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE
[00:30.29]and write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each gap.
[00:34.70]Make sure the word(s) you fill in is (are) both grammatically
[00:39.23]and semantically acceptable.
[00:41.85]You may use the blank sheet for note-taking.
[00:45.67]You have THIRTY seconds to preview the gap-filling task.
[01:19.89]Now, listen to the mini-lecture.
[01:22.30]When it is over, you will be given THREE minutes
[01:25.05]to check your work.
[01:27.25]Differences Between Chinese Cultures and American Cultures
[01:32.28]Good morning, everyone.
[01:34.29]Today we are going to talk about the major differences
[01:37.66]between Chinese cultures and American cultures.
[01:41.58]China is one of those interesting cultures
[01:44.32]mainly because what we usually know about the country is
[01:48.57]through movies or local Chinese restaurants.
[01:52.43]What I've learned over the years is
[01:54.61]that this kind of knowledge is usually useless.
[01:58.77]So, being an American
[02:01.07]what do I see as the 8 biggest cultural differences between the two countries?
[02:08.39]Before I actually dive into the differences,
[02:11.91]I just want you to know
[02:13.90]that these differences do not make either culture better or worse than the other one.
[02:20.13]It just shows their differences which have been created
[02:24.10]through centuries of history and development.
[02:27.99]China can trace their traditions and customs for thousands of years.
[02:33.06]America is still a small baby of a nation
[02:36.95]that has had very few traditions of its own
[02:40.18]but has become such a melting pot of cultures
[02:43.68]that there is almost no specific American culture
[02:47.35]that can be said to be applied across the board.
[02:51.08]This makes both cultures unique and worthy of study and respect.
[02:56.69]With this in mind, let's begin with the 8 biggest differences.
[03:02.84]1. Social Structure.
[03:05.88]In China the social structure is formal and hierarchical.
[03:10.84]You know where you fit in the structure and you abide by the rules there.
[03:15.75]There is no crossing into other areas.
[03:19.15]In America, it is much more loose and informal.
[03:23.50]It is not uncommon to see
[03:25.05]those of various social levels socializing and knowing each other.
[03:30.11]There are very few lines that socially are not allowed to be crossed.
[03:35.49]This can cause problems in business relationships
[03:38.71]if the visiting culture is unaware of it.
[03:47.18]If you are planning on conducting business in China
[03:50.44]or expecting an extended stay,
[03:52.84]it might be useful to know
[03:54.70]that the direct way that most Americans approach issues
[03:58.32]is not the way to go in China.
[04:01.54]Direct conflict or confrontation over issues is highly frowned upon.
[04:08.23]Doesn't matter that the "truth" needs to be spoken,
[04:11.96]respect and honour to each person replace that.
[04:16.20]To prove a point and show yourself in the right even over business issues
[04:21.50]is considered shameful and should be avoided.
[04:28.29]The Chinese looks more at the group collectivism than at individualism.
[04:34.07]America has become known for its push of individualism
[04:38.17]which has been a source of conflict with other cultures that look collectively.
[04:44.07]A person from China is more prone to look at
[04:47.62]how their acts affect the whole instead of how it affects them personally.
[04:53.62]They are more willing to give up and sacrifice for the greater good.
[04:58.39]America's individualism has been its backbone
[05:01.93]and the reason for its success as a world power,
[05:05.33]but when visiting China it needs to be reined in.
[05:10.54]4. Face and Reputation.
[05:14.79]Reputation of the individual is very important in China.
[05:19.75]If an action will humiliate someone or ruin a reputation, it is avoided.
[05:26.66]When shame occurs,
[05:28.22]the person sacrifices his job or whatever it is that will heal the shame.
[05:34.87]In America, reputations come and go overnight
[05:39.29]and in the end usually does not matter.
[05:42.56]The end result is more of the focus.
[05:46.02]A person is more likely to overlook a reputation to get the job done.
[05:52.82]5. Business Relations.
[05:56.67]When doing business in China, be prepared for much socializing.
[06:02.33]Business becomes secondary as the parties get to know each better.
[06:07.92]If it delays a contract, that is perfectly acceptable
[06:11.97]as long as the correct social time is allotted for.
[06:16.32]In America, business associates are usually more aloof.
[06:21.82]There might be some social gathering
[06:24.13]but the business is more important
[06:26.79]and the socializing will be sacrificed to get the job done if needed.
[06:31.92]Though there seems to be shift in America regarding this.
[06:35.92]The recognition of networking is becoming more pronounced.
[06:44.70]Chinese society places high values on the morals of their people.
[06:50.14]Marriage is not encouraged until the late twenties.
[06:53.99]In fact, dating is discouraged early in a young adult's life
[06:58.61]and proprieties are expected to be held up.
[07:02.42]The American culture is much more relaxed
[07:05.63]and some could even argue that there needs to be more morality emphasized.
[07:15.29]Humility is a revered virtue in Chinese culture.
[07:19.70]The success of one's business or personal life is downplayed
[07:24.29]while in America the successes are lauded.
[07:28.23]Most Americans in the fast business world consider humility a sign of weakness.
[07:35.22]This can be an issue that hurts inter-cultural relations.
[07:39.89]Be very sensitive to comments and actions in the presence of another culture.
[07:46.08]8. Time Sensitivity.
[07:49.44]Crossing cultures for business can be frustrating
[07:52.57]when it interferes with getting the job done.
[07:56.09]Most Americans are very time sensitive when it comes to meetings and deadlines.
[08:02.43]If the meeting was to commence at 2:00,
[08:05.90]then all parties are to be present at that time.
[08:09.83]The Chinese do not view time as an absolute but more as a suggestion.
[08:15.80]Concern is not expressed for a meeting starting late or ending at a different time.
[08:22.21]The same can be applied to deadlines.
[08:25.07]If a report is due on Friday,
[08:27.52]an American would be waiting for that report to be received
[08:30.97]before end of business day.
[08:33.63]The Chinese would not worry if it showed up several days later.
[08:38.64]Ok, today, we've taken a brief look at the 8 major differences
[08:44.28]between the Chinese cultures and the American cultures,
[08:48.12]which are permeated in the socio-economical aspects of the life.
[08:53.45]In the next lecture, we will do a case study
[08:56.39]on the cultural shock experienced by an American in China.
[09:02.50]Now you have THREE minutes to check your work.
[12:06.88]This is the end of Section A MINI-LECTURE.