2019-02-03 09:36:55 来源：网络专四专八资料下载
[00:10.12]TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS--GRADE EIGHT
[00:13.51]Section A MINI-LECTURE
[00:16.97]In this section you will hear a mini-lecture.
[00:20.29]You will hear the mini-lecture ONCE ONLY.
[00:23.73]While listening to the mini-lecture,
[00:25.82]please complete the gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE
[00:30.29]and write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each gap.
[00:34.70]Make sure the word(s) you fill in is (are) both grammatically
[00:39.23]and semantically acceptable.
[00:41.85]You may use the blank sheet for note-taking.
[00:45.67]You have THIRTY seconds to preview the gap-filling task.
[01:19.89]Now, listen to the mini-lecture.
[01:22.30]When it is over, you will be given THREE minutes
[01:25.05]to check your work.
[01:27.79]Intercultural Communication Problems and Solutions
[01:32.84]Good morning, everyone.
[01:34.52]Today we will look at the intercultural communication problems and solutions.
[01:40.04]Generally speaking, three types of problems are involved
[01:43.64]in the intercultural communication.
[01:46.43]They are stereotyping, prejudices, and discrimination.
[01:51.91]Let me explain each one to you with examples.
[01:56.13]First, about stereotyping.
[01:59.32]Walter Lippmann introduced the term in 1922
[02:03.26]to refer to a selection process
[02:05.35]that is used to organise and simplify perceptions of others.
[02:10.16]Stereotypes are a form of generalisation
[02:12.99]about some group of people to all people who belong to that category.
[02:19.11]Examples for stereotyping are such beliefs as:
[02:23.07]"Women are emotional", "Politicians are dishonest",
[02:28.58]"Germans are cold and too serious", "Latinos are lazy".
[02:35.62]Secondly, about prejudices.
[02:38.82]Prejudices refer to negative attitudes toward other people
[02:43.03]that are based on faulty and inflexible stereotypes.
[02:47.40]Prejudices include irrational feelings of dislike
[02:51.19]and even hatred for certain groups of people,
[02:53.96]who are not based on direct experiences and first-hand knowledge.
[03:00.07]Whereas prejudice refers to a people's attitude or mental presentation,
[03:05.37]the term discrimination refers to the behavioural aspect, prejudice in action.
[03:11.92]For instance, you hold a resentful attitude towards the idea
[03:16.77]that women are equally capable in law business.
[03:21.03]This prejudice might lead you to a discrimination
[03:24.16]against women in women attorneys.
[03:27.76]As we understand the problems involved in intercultural communication,
[03:32.24]let's talk about the solutions.
[03:34.94]We have a 5-step approach we can follow.
[03:38.38]First Step: Examining our Perception
[03:42.33]A not-OK feeling is indubitably uncomfortable for every person affected by it
[03:49.01]and should therefore be avoided.
[03:51.65]In addition, it keeps us from finding good and proper solutions to our problems.
[03:57.30]That is why it is so important to examine this feeling.
[04:02.18]An example from a workshop with British students should make this clearer.
[04:07.61]A student reported the following German university experience:
[04:12.40]"I found the German students cold.
[04:15.01]I was at the university the first day
[04:17.33]and was supposed to contact a seminar group.
[04:20.42]The students were sitting around a table talking.
[04:23.72]No one paid any attention to me; they ignored me, and I left."
[04:29.45]I asked the student to play the scene.
[04:32.63]She had the workshop students spread themselves out
[04:35.75]around a table the way she remembered the German students to be sitting
[04:40.33]and stood at a distance to it.
[04:43.43]It was quickly clear that the group around the table probably had not even seen her
[04:49.45]and that the student's feeling of being rejected and ignored
[04:53.39]had only been in her imagination.
[04:56.83]Feelings are real and, even when they are objectively irrational,
[05:01.36]perceiving them is the first step towards change.
[05:06.69]Second Step: Looking for Evidence
[05:10.54]A second step is then the question where these feelings come from:
[05:15.12]do they have to do with the momentary situation
[05:17.96]or are they older feelings that are re-released by the current situation?
[05:23.44]Searching for this evidence
[05:25.14]almost always brings us into contact with the wounds or fears of a small girl or boy.
[05:32.55]Thus too in our account:
[05:35.59]the student was reminded spontaneously of a childhood scene:
[05:40.12]she saw herself as a small, skinny, ugly little girl
[05:44.06]together with her younger, beautiful sister;
[05:47.39]everyone look at the enchanting little sister,
[05:50.33]and she felt in her little sister's shadow, inferior,
[05:54.81]because she thought she wasn't as pretty, not as original.
[05:59.95]This feeling left her feeling as though paralysed.
[06:04.03]She had become an attractive young woman,
[06:06.74]but there were occasions time and again
[06:09.65]in which she retreated into herself and slipped into the shoes of a 5-year-old girl.
[06:16.37]Third Step: Observing the Reaction
[06:20.43]A further step would then be to examine our individual reaction.
[06:25.41]In our example: in situations in which our student felt rejected and inferior,
[06:31.00]she was projecting her own feelings onto others.
[06:34.86]They are the ones who reject her,
[06:36.96]and therefore they are unfriendly, mean and nasty.
[06:41.67]Our student took on the typical loser position.
[06:45.63]It is important here to look closely.
[06:49.21]Since it is difficult for all of us to cope with seeing ourselves as inferior,
[06:53.87]with having this feeling within us as our feeling,
[06:57.51]the almost automatic tendency exists
[07:00.29]to put the blame on others for exactly this feeling.
[07:04.96]Not I feel rejected but YOU reject me.
[07:09.13]And because YOU reject me, I think you're stupid and therefore reject you.
[07:15.17]This rejection will be felt by the other and, if he is neither a saint nor a therapist,
[07:22.27]he will react with rejection, too.
[07:25.69]This spiral of feelings which create facts
[07:28.86]also functions analogously with positive feelings.
[07:33.43]If I awaken a feeling of being recognised in another,
[07:37.17]his behaviour will be positively strengthened.
[07:41.60]Fourth Step: Perception of the Others
[07:45.57]After one's own mechanisms have been recognised,
[07:49.37]it is as important to think oneself into the other.
[07:53.49]To do this, we need to put ourselves into others' shoes and ask ourselves:
[07:59.08]How does the other see the world and how are his reactions to be explained?
[08:04.97]Fifth Step: Change
[08:08.01]Following upon the previous steps,
[08:10.20]the decisive step is consequentially to ask how I can do it differently.
[08:16.54]In our example,
[08:17.74]I asked the student to try to see in another role game what she could change.
[08:23.89]This time she went to the group, introduced herself
[08:27.34]and said she was happy to meet her fellow German students.
[08:31.44]And that was over: she felt good, and she felt active and full of energy again.
[08:37.90]An important requirement to change something is to control our own perception
[08:43.01]by becoming aware of our own subjectivity
[08:46.68]and by objectively gathering or using more information,
[08:51.45]for instance by questioning others
[08:54.08]or through technical evidence like a tape recorder or a video.
[08:58.89]The idea can be helpful that all of us are similar to the blind
[09:03.14]who wants to describe an elephant.
[09:06.28]We don't know what the elephant really looks like.
[09:09.05]We can only describe our reality.
[09:11.93]Important is that we are conscious of our blindness,
[09:15.97]for then we can ask and paint ourselves a picture.
[09:19.60]OK, so we have talked about the three problems in intercultural communication,
[09:24.59]which are stereotyping, prejudices, and discrimination
[09:29.17]and we also touch upon the solutions to these problems, a five-step approach.
[09:34.82]Next time, we will put this approach into practice,
[09:38.60]to give you a real sense of to what extent it works.
[09:44.67]Now you have THREE minutes to check your work.
[12:48.88]This is the end of Section A MINI-LECTURE.