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2019英语专八听力mini lecture全真模拟训练MP3附文本(二)

2019-02-03 09:36:55 来源:网络专四专八资料下载

2019英语专八听力mini lecture全真模拟训练MP3附文本(二) 

 2019专八考试临近,寒假期间专八考生们也别松懈了对专八听力的训练,新东方在线专八频道整理了2019英语专八听力mini lecture全真模拟训练MP3附文本,希望大家认真复习。


  [00:10.12]TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS--GRADE EIGHT

  [00:13.51]Section A MINI-LECTURE

  [00:16.97]In this section you will hear a mini-lecture.

  [00:20.29]You will hear the mini-lecture ONCE ONLY.

  [00:23.73]While listening to the mini-lecture,

  [00:25.82]please complete the gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE

  [00:30.29]and write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each gap.

  [00:34.70]Make sure the word(s) you fill in is (are) both grammatically

  [00:39.23]and semantically acceptable.

  [00:41.85]You may use the blank sheet for note-taking.

  [00:45.67]You have THIRTY seconds to preview the gap-filling task.

  [01:19.89]Now, listen to the mini-lecture.

  [01:22.30]When it is over, you will be given THREE minutes

  [01:25.05]to check your work.

  [01:27.79]Intercultural Communication Problems and Solutions

  [01:32.84]Good morning, everyone.

  [01:34.52]Today we will look at the intercultural communication problems and solutions.

  [01:40.04]Generally speaking, three types of problems are involved

  [01:43.64]in the intercultural communication.

  [01:46.43]They are stereotyping, prejudices, and discrimination.

  [01:51.91]Let me explain each one to you with examples.

  [01:56.13]First, about stereotyping.

  [01:59.32]Walter Lippmann introduced the term in 1922

  [02:03.26]to refer to a selection process

  [02:05.35]that is used to organise and simplify perceptions of others.

  [02:10.16]Stereotypes are a form of generalisation

  [02:12.99]about some group of people to all people who belong to that category.

  [02:19.11]Examples for stereotyping are such beliefs as:

  [02:23.07]"Women are emotional", "Politicians are dishonest",

  [02:28.58]"Germans are cold and too serious", "Latinos are lazy".

  [02:35.62]Secondly, about prejudices.

  [02:38.82]Prejudices refer to negative attitudes toward other people

  [02:43.03]that are based on faulty and inflexible stereotypes.

  [02:47.40]Prejudices include irrational feelings of dislike

  [02:51.19]and even hatred for certain groups of people,

  [02:53.96]who are not based on direct experiences and first-hand knowledge.

  [03:00.07]Whereas prejudice refers to a people's attitude or mental presentation,

  [03:05.37]the term discrimination refers to the behavioural aspect, prejudice in action.

  [03:11.92]For instance, you hold a resentful attitude towards the idea

  [03:16.77]that women are equally capable in law business.

  [03:21.03]This prejudice might lead you to a discrimination

  [03:24.16]against women in women attorneys.

  [03:27.76]As we understand the problems involved in intercultural communication,

  [03:32.24]let's talk about the solutions.

  [03:34.94]We have a 5-step approach we can follow.

  [03:38.38]First Step: Examining our Perception

  [03:42.33]A not-OK feeling is indubitably uncomfortable for every person affected by it

  [03:49.01]and should therefore be avoided.

  [03:51.65]In addition, it keeps us from finding good and proper solutions to our problems.

  [03:57.30]That is why it is so important to examine this feeling.

  [04:02.18]An example from a workshop with British students should make this clearer.

  [04:07.61]A student reported the following German university experience:

  [04:12.40]"I found the German students cold.

  [04:15.01]I was at the university the first day

  [04:17.33]and was supposed to contact a seminar group.

  [04:20.42]The students were sitting around a table talking.

  [04:23.72]No one paid any attention to me; they ignored me, and I left."

  [04:29.45]I asked the student to play the scene.

  [04:32.63]She had the workshop students spread themselves out

  [04:35.75]around a table the way she remembered the German students to be sitting

  [04:40.33]and stood at a distance to it.

  [04:43.43]It was quickly clear that the group around the table probably had not even seen her

  [04:49.45]and that the student's feeling of being rejected and ignored

  [04:53.39]had only been in her imagination.

  [04:56.83]Feelings are real and, even when they are objectively irrational,

  [05:01.36]perceiving them is the first step towards change.

  [05:06.69]Second Step: Looking for Evidence

  [05:10.54]A second step is then the question where these feelings come from:

  [05:15.12]do they have to do with the momentary situation

  [05:17.96]or are they older feelings that are re-released by the current situation?

  [05:23.44]Searching for this evidence

  [05:25.14]almost always brings us into contact with the wounds or fears of a small girl or boy.

  [05:32.55]Thus too in our account:

  [05:35.59]the student was reminded spontaneously of a childhood scene:

  [05:40.12]she saw herself as a small, skinny, ugly little girl

  [05:44.06]together with her younger, beautiful sister;

  [05:47.39]everyone look at the enchanting little sister,

  [05:50.33]and she felt in her little sister's shadow, inferior,

  [05:54.81]because she thought she wasn't as pretty, not as original.

  [05:59.95]This feeling left her feeling as though paralysed.

  [06:04.03]She had become an attractive young woman,

  [06:06.74]but there were occasions time and again

  [06:09.65]in which she retreated into herself and slipped into the shoes of a 5-year-old girl.

  [06:16.37]Third Step: Observing the Reaction

  [06:20.43]A further step would then be to examine our individual reaction.

  [06:25.41]In our example: in situations in which our student felt rejected and inferior,

  [06:31.00]she was projecting her own feelings onto others.

  [06:34.86]They are the ones who reject her,

  [06:36.96]and therefore they are unfriendly, mean and nasty.

  [06:41.67]Our student took on the typical loser position.

  [06:45.63]It is important here to look closely.

  [06:49.21]Since it is difficult for all of us to cope with seeing ourselves as inferior,

  [06:53.87]with having this feeling within us as our feeling,

  [06:57.51]the almost automatic tendency exists

  [07:00.29]to put the blame on others for exactly this feeling.

  [07:04.96]Not I feel rejected but YOU reject me.

  [07:09.13]And because YOU reject me, I think you're stupid and therefore reject you.

  [07:15.17]This rejection will be felt by the other and, if he is neither a saint nor a therapist,

  [07:22.27]he will react with rejection, too.

  [07:25.69]This spiral of feelings which create facts

  [07:28.86]also functions analogously with positive feelings.

  [07:33.43]If I awaken a feeling of being recognised in another,

  [07:37.17]his behaviour will be positively strengthened.

  [07:41.60]Fourth Step: Perception of the Others

  [07:45.57]After one's own mechanisms have been recognised,

  [07:49.37]it is as important to think oneself into the other.

  [07:53.49]To do this, we need to put ourselves into others' shoes and ask ourselves:

  [07:59.08]How does the other see the world and how are his reactions to be explained?

  [08:04.97]Fifth Step: Change

  [08:08.01]Following upon the previous steps,

  [08:10.20]the decisive step is consequentially to ask how I can do it differently.

  [08:16.54]In our example,

  [08:17.74]I asked the student to try to see in another role game what she could change.

  [08:23.89]This time she went to the group, introduced herself

  [08:27.34]and said she was happy to meet her fellow German students.

  [08:31.44]And that was over: she felt good, and she felt active and full of energy again.

  [08:37.90]An important requirement to change something is to control our own perception

  [08:43.01]by becoming aware of our own subjectivity

  [08:46.68]and by objectively gathering or using more information,

  [08:51.45]for instance by questioning others

  [08:54.08]or through technical evidence like a tape recorder or a video.

  [08:58.89]The idea can be helpful that all of us are similar to the blind

  [09:03.14]who wants to describe an elephant.

  [09:06.28]We don't know what the elephant really looks like.

  [09:09.05]We can only describe our reality.

  [09:11.93]Important is that we are conscious of our blindness,

  [09:15.97]for then we can ask and paint ourselves a picture.

  [09:19.60]OK, so we have talked about the three problems in intercultural communication,

  [09:24.59]which are stereotyping, prejudices, and discrimination

  [09:29.17]and we also touch upon the solutions to these problems, a five-step approach.

  [09:34.82]Next time, we will put this approach into practice,

  [09:38.60]to give you a real sense of to what extent it works.

  [09:44.67]Now you have THREE minutes to check your work.

  [12:48.88]This is the end of Section A MINI-LECTURE.

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