2019-02-03 09:37:44 来源：网络专四专八资料下载
[00:10.12]TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS--GRADE EIGHT
[00:13.51]Section A MINI-LECTURE
[00:16.97]In this section you will hear a mini-lecture.
[00:20.29]You will hear the mini-lecture ONCE ONLY.
[00:23.73]While listening to the mini-lecture,
[00:25.82]please complete the gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE
[00:30.29]and write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each gap.
[00:34.70]Make sure the word(s) you fill in is (are) both grammatically
[00:39.23]and semantically acceptable.
[00:41.85]You may use the blank sheet for note-taking.
[00:45.67]You have THIRTY seconds to preview the gap-filling task.
[01:19.89]Now, listen to the mini-lecture.
[01:22.30]When it is over, you will be given THREE minutes
[01:25.05]to check your work.
[01:28.05]Cross-Cultural Communication Tips for Americans
[01:32.61]Good morning everyone.
[01:34.49]Today we are going to talk about the practical tips in cross-cultural communication.
[01:40.96]There are millions of people living in the United States
[01:44.77]who were born abroad and chose to make a new life in America.
[01:49.56]There are also plenty of people who were born here,
[01:52.83]but are part of a culture that differs from mainstream American culture.
[01:58.12]It's no wonder that we take pride in being a society
[02:02.21]in which people from all nations and cultures can live.
[02:06.80]But too often,
[02:08.19]Americans only consider their own side of interactions between cultures.
[02:14.09]Instead of the old expression that described American society as a "melting pot,"
[02:20.71]it's more accurate today to compare it to a "salad bowl,"
[02:25.00]in which different people are mixed together,
[02:27.56]but maintain their unique cultural identities.
[02:32.14]Members of all cultures need to take care to understand and accommodate each other.
[02:38.85]The worst thing you can do when speaking with someone from another culture is
[02:43.47]to base your actions on assumptions.
[02:46.64]Our advice for cross-cultural communication can be boiled down to one rule:
[02:52.28]Don't assume anything!
[02:55.26]Instead, you should learn how to ask around a sensitive topic
[02:59.84]and watch for your conversation partner's reaction.
[03:03.75]Often you can find the information you're looking for
[03:07.23]without making the person feel that you're expecting a stereotype.
[03:12.19]The other essential component of cross-cultural communication
[03:16.92]is to expect some misunderstandings.
[03:20.89]Often we regard standards and rules of our culture as universal —
[03:26.55]only to be offended and shocked when someone violates those standards.
[03:31.93]A few mistakes are bound to occur.
[03:35.06]Don't feel awkward — from the other person's perspective,
[03:39.03]you're the one who's from a different culture.
[03:42.28]Chances are the same questions and hesitations
[03:45.99]that are going through your mind are going through the other person's as well.
[03:51.06]Here are three important tips you could follow
[03:54.77]in order to avoid awkwardness in cross-cultural communication.
[04:00.81]Key Tip 1
[04:03.28]Take the initiative and introduce yourself,
[04:06.27]and if the conversation lags, do your best to push it along.
[04:11.06]People can sometimes feel a little shy when immersed in a different culture
[04:16.35]because they're afraid of doing or saying the wrong thing —
[04:20.84]or they just feel different from everyone else.
[04:24.72]Asking friendly questions is a good way to draw people out of their shells.
[04:31.18]Key Tip 2
[04:33.86]It's difficult to tell a person's native country by the accent.
[04:38.82]Someone may speak with what sounds like a British accent,
[04:43.27]but could actually be from South Africa, New Zealand, Australia, Ireland, Scotland,
[04:50.08]Wales, India, Canada, Ghana, Belize, Hong Kong, Zimbabwe
[04:56.82]or any other of the dozens of independent nations or protectorates
[05:01.79]that were once British colonies.
[05:04.46]Another example is Spanish,
[05:06.77]which is the most widely spoken romance language in the world.
[05:11.14]It's the official language of Spain and much of Latin America.
[05:15.75]And don't forget that more than 14 million people in the United States
[05:20.99]speak Spanish as their primary language, and many of them are American-born.
[05:27.57]Making assumptions about someone's native country
[05:30.95]just because of an accent is risky.
[05:34.48]Play it safe and give the person an opportunity to share this information with you.
[05:41.31]Key Tip 3
[05:43.89]Topics that you might consider personal, like your income or dating life,
[05:49.24]may be suitable for conversation in someone else's culture.
[05:54.14]Rather than taking offense, try to let it slide.
[05:58.57]Questions like these are well-meaning attempts to make conversation with you
[06:03.42]or to learn more about your culture.
[06:06.23]If a question is too personal, deflect it by making your answer broad and general.
[06:12.70]Instead of saying "I make $40,000 a year,"
[06:17.18]say "People in my field usually make anywhere from $30,000 to $60,000 a year."
[06:24.79]If you're pressed for specifics, then you can gently give an answer like,
[06:31.02]"That's a topic that I don't feel comfortable discussing,"
[06:34.76]and move on to a new area.
[06:37.68]Now, let's look at a cross-cultural interaction gone wrong:
[06:43.08]Jeff is introduced to one of his company's new consultants, Lora.
[06:48.19]As Lora smiles and says hello, Jeff notices her dark skin and Spanish accent.
[06:55.41]As they make small talk, Jeff realizes that Lora's still calling him Mr.Williams.
[07:02.46]He decides to help break the ice and call Lora by her first name as often as he can.
[07:08.95]In an attempt to warm her up, he asks if she's been to any good bullfights lately.
[07:14.96]When she balks, he mentions an article describing the cruelty of bullfighting,
[07:20.39]and then he invites her to a basketball game
[07:23.20]so that she can see some real American sports.
[07:27.37]How did Jeff do? Well, he violated most of our rules:
[07:32.34]First of all, he assumed that he could address her by her first name
[07:37.10]without asking if it was okay to do so.
[07:41.09]Next in order, he tried to force her into a degree of familiarity
[07:46.08]that made her uncomfortable.
[07:48.85]Thirdly, by asking her about bullfighting, he assumed she was from Spain or Mexico.
[07:56.48]Lora's from Chile, which doesn't allow bullfighting.
[08:00.88]Finally, he made himself look a little foolish when he talked to her
[08:06.23]as if she didn't know that some people regard bullfighting as cruel
[08:11.18]and by assuming that Lora had never been to a basketball game before.
[08:16.80]OK. I think we all understand the importance of sticking to the tips we have shared.
[08:23.21]Remember that people from different countries, even other English-speaking nations,
[08:28.90]probably won't speak, dress, act, or even eat the same way you do.
[08:35.44]Don't assume that someone from another country, or another culture,
[08:40.19]shares your values and attitudes,
[08:42.68]no matter how firmly you believe in them, or how widely held you think they are.
[08:48.47]Expect and respect cultural differences.
[08:53.87]Now you have THREE minutes to check your work.
[11:58.57]This is the end of Section A MINI-LECTURE.