[00:10.12]TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS--GRADE EIGHT
[00:13.51]Section A MINI-LECTURE
[00:16.97]In this section you will hear a mini-lecture.
[00:20.29]You will hear the mini-lecture ONCE ONLY.
[00:23.73]While listening to the mini-lecture,
[00:25.82]please complete the gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE
[00:30.29]and write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each gap.
[00:34.70]Make sure the word(s) you fill in is (are) both grammatically
[00:39.23]and semantically acceptable.
[00:41.85]You may use the blank sheet for note-taking.
[00:45.67]You have THIRTY seconds to preview the gap-filling task.
[01:19.89]Now, listen to the mini-lecture.
[01:22.30]When it is over, you will be given THREE minutes
[01:25.05]to check your work.
[01:27.35]Culture As a Barrier to Communication
[01:31.02]Good morning, everyone.
[01:32.89]In this lecture, I am going to lead you to the discussion of
[01:37.12]cultural barriers and their solutions.
[01:40.42]I am sure that each of us is exposed to people from other cultures on a regular basis,
[01:46.61]in the workplace, in our social activities, at school, or even within our families.
[01:53.52]Our culture hinders us from getting our message across
[01:57.83]as well as receiving the full message that others want to convey to us.
[02:03.63]This talk expounds on three aspects: what culture is,
[02:08.67]the main causes for cross-cultural misunderstandings,
[02:12.67]and the attitudes and skills that we need to communicate cross-culturally.
[02:18.47]First of all, let's talk about what culture is.
[02:22.78]When we think about culture we first think about a country,
[02:26.76]and particularly about its food, art, customs, and patterns of behavior.
[02:33.36]These are the outward manifestations of
[02:36.10]a system of values, assumptions, and deeply rooted beliefs.
[02:41.26]Culture emerges as a group of people meet and then react to the challenges of life.
[02:47.67]The responses to those challenges that are successful
[02:51.23]are taught and shared among members of the group
[02:54.40]and are passed on from the older to the younger members.
[02:58.57]Culture is then learned through experience.
[03:02.43]You can think of culture as having three levels:
[03:06.00]first, the top level is the outward manifestations, the artifacts:
[03:11.53]visible behavior, art, clothing and so on;
[03:15.70]second, in the middle level are the values.
[03:19.44]These are invisible rules that cause the artifacts;
[03:23.67]thirdly, the most powerful dimension of culture is the implicit cultural assumptions.
[03:30.70]These assumptions lie so deep that they are never questioned, stated or defended.
[03:37.98]Culture also exists among Americans,
[03:41.03]but what are the implicit cultural assumptions of Americans?
[03:45.63]Some of the most distinctive characteristics of the American culture are:
[03:51.00]individualism, equality, competition, personal control of the environment,
[03:57.78]self-help concept, action orientation, informality, directness,
[04:04.56]practicality, materialism, and problem-solving orientation.
[04:11.82]These American values and deeply rooted beliefs
[04:15.56]are very different from other country's values and beliefs.
[04:20.47]The implicit cultural assumptions of Americans
[04:23.65]are often opposed to those of other cultures.
[04:27.50]When individuals from different cultures run into each other's values and beliefs,
[04:33.99]cross-cultural misunderstandings take place.
[04:37.91]Now, let's talk about the main causes for cross-cultural misunderstandings.
[04:43.96]People constantly interact with people
[04:47.01]who have similar views and who reinforce their beliefs.
[04:51.99]To be able to distinguish between the in-group and the out-group
[04:56.80]is of central importance for individuals
[05:00.16]because it allows them to find who they are and who they are not.
[05:05.44]In the book entitled Cross Cultural Encounters, Brislim states:
[05:11.11]"If individuals have out-groups whom they can blame for troubles,
[05:15.98]the in-group is then solidified since there is a common goal around which to rally."
[05:22.82]Later on he says: "Individuals become accustomed to reacting
[05:27.86]in terms of in-group and out-group.
[05:31.10]They continue to use such distinctions
[05:33.65]when interacting with people from other cultures whom they do not know."
[05:39.31]This in-group/out-group distinction provides us with the basis for ethnocentrism,
[05:45.78]which is the tendency to interpret and to judge
[05:49.34]all other groups, their environment, and their communication
[05:53.95]according to the categories and values of our own culture.
[05:58.93]We are guilty of ethnocentrism when we hold
[06:02.47]that our view of the world is the right one, the correct one, and the only one.
[06:08.59]We are all familiar with stereotyping,
[06:11.26]which is one of the most serious problems in intercultural communication.
[06:16.43]Our tendency to hold beliefs about groups of individuals
[06:20.54]based on previously formed opinions, perceptions, and attitudes
[06:25.53]is often a defense mechanism, a way of reducing anxiety.
[06:31.77]There are many other causes of cross-cultural misunderstanding:
[06:36.00]lack of trust, lack of empathy, and the misuse of power.
[06:41.22]All of us know what they are about and the turmoil that they cause.
[06:45.83]But, how can we do a better job at communicating among cultures?
[06:51.18]This is actually the last part of my talk.
[06:54.66]The same skills that we need to communicate in general
[06:58.52]apply to cross-cultural communication.
[07:01.76]Let's look at some of those skills:
[07:04.75]1. Know yourself: Identify your attitudes, your opinions,
[07:10.91]and the biases that we all carry around.
[07:14.33]Identify your likes, your dislikes, your prejudices,
[07:18.62]and your degree of personal ethnocentrism.
[07:22.43]2. Take time: Listen to the other person
[07:27.60]and allow him or her to accomplish their purpose. Don't jump to conclusions.
[07:34.19]Sometimes we finish the thoughts and ideas of the other person
[07:38.55]before he or she has finished talking.
[07:42.10]In some cultures, non-verbal styles call for periods of silence and long pauses.
[07:49.31]3. Encourage feedback: Feedback allows communicators
[07:55.32]to correct and adjust messages. Without feedback we cannot have agreement.
[08:02.35]First we must create an atmosphere where others are encouraged to give us feedback.
[08:09.26]Again, don't be afraid of silence. It could be the appropriate feedback at times.
[08:16.67]4. Develop empathy: The greater the difference between us and others,
[08:22.89]the harder it is to empathize.
[08:25.56]To develop empathy we must put ourselves in the other person's place.
[08:31.16]By becoming more sensitive to the needs, values, and goals of the other person,
[08:37.39]we overcome our ethnocentric tendencies.
[08:41.74]5. Seek the commonalities among diverse cultures:
[08:47.09]Despite our cultural differences we are all alike in many ways.
[08:52.76]We need to seek that common ground
[08:55.49]to establish a bond between ourselves and the rest of humanity.
[09:00.66]All right. I think I have covered the three main parts of my talk.
[09:06.20]Finally, I would like to reiterate
[09:09.06]that although our own ethnocentrism might have hindered us
[09:13.54]from getting to know people from other cultures,
[09:16.84]let us be more than ever committed to helping ourselves and others
[09:21.82]overcome the barrier that culture creates.
[09:25.36]Let us endeavor to minimize the occurrences of cross-cultural misunderstandings
[09:31.21]as we develop the attitudes and the skills
[09:34.70]that are needed to communicate cross-culturally.
[09:41.44]Now you have THREE minutes to check your work.
[12:45.88]This is the end of Section A MINI-LECTURE.
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价格 : ￥780元