2019-02-10 09:11:00 来源：网络专四专八资料下载
[00:10.12]TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS--GRADE EIGHT
[00:13.51]Section A MINI-LECTURE
[00:16.97]In this section you will hear a mini-lecture.
[00:20.29]You will hear the mini-lecture ONCE ONLY.
[00:23.73]While listening to the mini-lecture,
[00:25.82]please complete the gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE
[00:30.29]and write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each gap.
[00:34.70]Make sure the word(s) you fill in is (are) both grammatically
[00:39.23]and semantically acceptable.
[00:41.85]You may use the blank sheet for note-taking.
[00:45.67]You have THIRTY seconds to preview the gap-filling task.
[01:19.89]Now, listen to the mini-lecture.
[01:22.30]When it is over, you will be given THREE minutes
[01:25.05]to check your work.
[01:28.10]Cross Cultural Negotiations
[01:31.03]Good morning, everyone.
[01:32.58]Today we are going to continue our discussion
[01:35.32]about cross cultural influence on business, particularly on business negotiations.
[01:42.06]Do you have an international sales negotiation coming up?
[01:45.93]Are you nervous about how it will go?
[01:48.98]Most people don't give much thought
[01:51.22]to the actual cross cultural communication process
[01:54.45]prior to their first real cross cultural negotiation.
[01:58.88]They get obsessed with secondary details.
[02:02.43]Imagine you are in a long line of people waiting for a taxi
[02:06.41]at the busy Paris airport, with people swarming everywhere.
[02:10.85]The noise of the street traffic is competing with
[02:13.77]the noise from the airplanes in the background.
[02:16.76]And then you hear such a large commotion, right up at the front of your taxi line.
[02:22.87]You think it is yet another bomb scare and crane your neck
[02:26.56]to get a closer look with your bags in your hands ready to move.
[02:31.63]But out of the confusion you hear laughter. What happened?
[02:37.25]It was only someone who began to try bargaining the price of his ride
[02:41.85]before he got inside the taxi... with a Parisian taxi driver.
[02:46.83]The tension breaks
[02:48.07]as a ripple of laughter mixed with annoyance runs down the taxi line.
[02:53.42]It is an old story. But it does highlight cultural differences in negotiation very well.
[03:00.56]Today I am going to address several points about cross culture negotiation.
[03:06.47]First of all, I want you to know
[03:08.84]that different cultures have different negotiation practices.
[03:13.46]Negotiation practices differ from country to country.
[03:17.69]Some cultures expect clients to negotiate over things
[03:22.06]that would be totally unacceptable in other countries.
[03:26.10]Some cultures get upset or angry by things
[03:29.34]that are totally acceptable in other cultures.
[03:32.82]Different cultures simply have different approaches when it comes to negotiation.
[03:38.49]This can be intimidating when you travel to a new country to negotiate for business.
[03:44.46]And even more so if it is your first time.
[03:48.13]It is important to know what is culturally expected of you
[03:52.05]when it comes to negotiation.
[03:55.04]If you are just starting out in developing your international markets,
[03:59.15]it is wise to do some homework and identify the standard expected negotiating habits
[04:05.37]in the country you are travelling to.
[04:07.67]No matter how much research you do
[04:10.17]prior to your first cross cultural negotiation communication
[04:14.11]road blocks can easily come up.
[04:17.53]This is even more likely if your negotiation is taking place in a foreign environment
[04:23.57]to what you are used to.
[04:26.12]So it is even more important to develop skills to ride through communication hurdles.
[04:32.52]Now, let me give you a beginner's guideline for cross cultural negotiation.
[04:37.94]Prior to your first cross cultural negotiation
[04:40.86]give some thought on how you will keep on track.
[04:44.72]Here is a guideline to help beginners.
[04:47.58]If you find yourself on your own
[04:49.99]in a country where negotiation practices are different to your own,
[04:54.10]there is a strategy to follow.
[04:56.84]Do your research on what will be expected of you.
[05:00.76]Define your schedule, and what you are expected to wear and bring.
[05:05.30]If you are a woman, be sure to verify standard practices beforehand.
[05:10.34]Are there any standard culturally specific negotiating practices?
[05:15.07]Remember to ask for advice prior to cross-cultural negotiations.
[05:20.61]If you feel you will be in a more different environment than you are used to
[05:25.77]you have two options to consider: One, hire local representation.
[05:31.93]Some large multi-national companies hire local company representatives
[05:36.73]to facilitate all business procedures in certain countries
[05:40.46]in the Middle East and the Far East.
[05:43.65]Two, arrange for a local third party to accompany you.
[05:49.31]Look for someone who can tell you if you are making any cultural blunders.
[05:55.00]This will give you a certain peace of mind.
[05:58.26]We all know prior research helps, but even so, it is not always easy.
[06:04.04]You will also need to keep your own behavior and attitudes
[06:08.17]turned towards your negotiation.
[06:10.79]In the third part of my presentation, I will give you 8 points
[06:14.71]which are considered best practices during your first cross cultural negotiation.
[06:21.18]1. Ask and find out what is expected of you.
[06:26.64]2. Explain that you are looking forward to the business opportunities
[06:31.43]open to both of you.
[06:34.17]3. Explain that this is your first trip
[06:37.67]and you have not done business in their country before.
[06:41.87]4. State your good will and that you do not mean to do anything awkward.
[06:48.52]5. Ask to be told or shown what to do.
[06:53.87]6. Apologize if you do or say something that seems to be out of place.
[07:00.53]7. Continue to show your desire to proceed in the negotiations.
[07:07.00]8. Continue to say that you look forward to doing business with them
[07:11.69]and learning more about their culture.
[07:14.94]Keep this guideline in mind during your negotiations.
[07:19.11]Remain constantly aware of your environment
[07:22.31]so you can implement any of these points if needed.
[07:26.11]Use each point appropriately when needed and do not go overboard.
[07:31.40]Overly stating your enthusiasm or apologizing incessantly
[07:36.12]can be destructive to your negotiations in some cultures.
[07:40.98]Use this guideline as a gentle reminder to stay tuned to where the other party is at.
[07:48.28]If you feel in any way that you need to refer to one of the points above,
[07:53.32]do so, and continue your negotiation.
[07:57.36]In closing, I want to emphasize
[08:00.02]that cross cultural communication is a process
[08:03.34]where you adjust your communication a little and learn to meet another culture
[08:08.00]in the area where you both feel comfortable.
[08:11.25]It is about knowing when to ask discretely for feedback
[08:15.42]to make sure you are all on the same path.
[08:19.65]Your first cross cultural negotiation will simply be a first step
[08:24.01]in the process of adjusting to another culture.
[08:27.74]Your cross cultural communication skills improve with practice.
[08:32.36]Follow these guidelines for your first cross cultural negotiation
[08:36.47]and you will not make people laugh.
[08:41.01]Now you have THREE minutes to check your work.
[11:45.38]This is the end of Section A MINI-LECTURE.