[00:10.12]TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS--GRADE EIGHT
[00:13.51]Section A MINI-LECTURE
[00:16.97]In this section you will hear a mini-lecture.
[00:20.29]You will hear the mini-lecture ONCE ONLY.
[00:23.73]While listening to the mini-lecture,
[00:25.82]please complete the gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE
[00:30.29]and write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each gap.
[00:34.70]Make sure the word(s) you fill in is (are) both grammatically
[00:39.23]and semantically acceptable.
[00:41.85]You may use the blank sheet for note-taking.
[00:45.67]You have THIRTY seconds to preview the gap-filling task.
[01:19.89]Now, listen to the mini-lecture.
[01:22.30]When it is over, you will be given THREE minutes
[01:25.05]to check your work.
[01:27.50]English as a Global Language
[01:30.61]Good morning everyone.
[01:32.23]Today we are going to examine English as a global language.
[01:36.79]English has played the role as a global language for quite some time.
[01:41.39]Some theorists mention some characteristics of English as a global language
[01:46.43]i.e. the use of English has spread across the world
[01:50.36]and it has become the most preferable foreign language teaching.
[01:54.67]English has also been used widely in economic, political, and scientific fields
[02:01.01]as well as the main tool of communication in media
[02:04.62]such as ratio, television, newspaper, and even internet. This is not good news to all.
[02:12.15]For example, some argue that the global dominance of the English language
[02:16.71]is bad news for world literature. Why?
[02:20.21]Because if the English language dominates world publishing,
[02:23.69]very few translations will be commercially viable,
[02:27.83]except those from English to other languages.
[02:30.89]As a result, virtually only those writing in English
[02:34.31]will have a chance of reaching a world audience and achieving "classic status".
[02:39.91]The outcome is clear: just as in the sciences,
[02:43.09]those who wish to reach a world audience will write in English.
[02:47.19]World literature will be an English literature and will be the poorer for it —
[02:52.83]as if all music were written only for the cello.
[02:57.01]Having said that, we must understand
[02:59.44]that the spread of globalization all over the world is unstoppable nowadays.
[03:04.54]Although the definition of globalization itself really depends
[03:08.60]on what perspectives someone may look at,
[03:11.33]its impact has infiltrated in some aspects of our life.
[03:15.75]Similarly, the spread of English as a global language has been an interesting issue
[03:21.23]on whether it will bring bad or good impact to the society.
[03:25.65]Like god has created everything in this world in pairs, for instance,
[03:29.82]men and women, night and day, badness and goodness, life and death, and so on.
[03:36.22]The impacts of English as a global language also come up with such nature,
[03:41.48]the positive and negative.
[03:43.97]In the next few minutes I am going to give a snapshot of both sides.
[03:48.76]First of all, the positive impacts of English as a global language.
[03:53.55]The existence of English as a global language
[03:56.11]has contributed positive impacts on some areas.
[04:00.27]In trade or business area, English is a medium of communication
[04:05.38]among businessmen throughout the world.
[04:08.25]Indonesian exporters, for example,
[04:10.61]who want to export their local products to another country,
[04:14.22]must negotiate with prospective importers by using common language,
[04:19.23]in this case, English.
[04:21.53]In academic communities, the use of English in lecture-rooms or lecture-conferences
[04:27.34]has commonly happened in international levelled-universities.
[04:31.71]A lecturer in Indonesia can deliver his/her lecture to students in Thailand
[04:37.31]by using English-teleconference.
[04:40.11]It might happen because of a global language and global technology.
[04:44.79]In addition, in English Language Teaching (ELT), as a global language,
[04:50.58]English gives great opportunities to many English-speaking countries
[04:54.69]to promote ELT all over the world.
[04:57.81]As some experts point out, the spread of English use in most parts of the world
[05:03.04]contributes more benefits for English speaking countries.
[05:07.64]British council, Indonesia Australia Language Foundation (IALF)
[05:13.57]are examples of institutions that carry out programs
[05:17.76]on English language teaching in Indonesia.
[05:21.14]These language institutions are considerably gaining profit
[05:25.06]by providing language training for Indonesians.
[05:28.48]They can make a lot of money from Language teaching materials,
[05:31.71]such as TOEFL/IELTS preparation and any other English course.
[05:37.38]Now, let's turn to the negative impacts of English as a global language.
[05:42.44]The question whether the spread of English leads globalization
[05:46.42]or the globalization has led English appears to be on-going debate.
[05:52.08]Obviously, the impact of English spread is undeniable.
[05:56.62]The negative impact is particularly for those who cannot use English
[06:00.75]as the tool of their communication.
[06:03.44]It is noted that a global language can cause
[06:06.55]"linguistic and communicative inequality".
[06:10.53]We can see a good example of this inequality in the classroom.
[06:14.58]When we are teaching speaking skill to our students,
[06:17.41]we often find students who cannot speak English fluently tend to be quiet
[06:22.51]when we have them in discussion or other speaking activities.
[06:26.43]On the contrary, students who can speak English fluently
[06:29.79]tend to dominate the discussion.
[06:32.34]In a broader sense, for example, in international conference,
[06:36.01]the English speaker delegation often take advantages of being able to speak English
[06:41.36]to impose their opinion on other delegation.
[06:45.33]For some level, a crucial decision for international purpose
[06:49.32]sometimes was made based on this dominant opinion.
[06:53.78]If so, the impact of a global English is not only
[06:57.74]in linguistic and communicative inequality but also social inequality
[07:03.22]because a decision made in international conference
[07:06.39]is for the whole society's purpose in the world.
[07:09.57]But practically, it is made by some people who own a dominant language.
[07:14.73]Furthermore, one linguistics expert
[07:17.82]notes that the impact of English as a global language
[07:21.06]encompasses "linguistic power, linguistic complacency, and linguistic death".
[07:28.15]Linguistic power refers to those who have English as their first language
[07:32.51]will hold more power than those
[07:34.59]who speak English as their second or foreign language.
[07:38.14]He further gives an example that being English native speaker
[07:41.87]is a ticket to have a good career in English language companies.
[07:46.41]Next, linguistic complacency refers to less intention of English speakers
[07:52.17]to learn another language as well as its culture because they think that
[07:56.68]English as a global language has been spoken by all people in the world.
[08:01.91]So, there is no use to learn other languages.
[08:06.08]Finally, linguistic death refers to the existence of a global language
[08:11.49]that may lead to the death of other languages.
[08:14.73]The massive spread of English in every aspect of our life
[08:18.59]cannot be caught up by other languages such as French, Arabic, and Spanish.
[08:24.90]Experts also point out the dominance of English that causes monolingualism
[08:30.62]may ignore the use of other languages.
[08:34.17]OK. I have outlined the positive and negative impacts of English
[08:38.32]as the global language.
[08:40.31]But like it or not, English is quite dominant in the world.
[08:44.60]The best attitude towards it could be summarized in two words: "necessary evil".
[08:51.20]With that, we conclude our discussion for today.
[08:55.87]Now you have THREE minutes to check your work.
[11:59.85]This is the end of Section A MINI-LECTURE.
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