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2019英语专八听力mini lecture全真模拟训练MP3附文本(二十九)

2019-03-07 10:57:38来源:网络

2019英语专八听力mini lecture全真模拟训练MP3附文本(二十九)

  2019专八考试临近,寒假期间专八考生们也别松懈了对专八听力的训练,新东方在线专八频道整理了2019英语专八听力mini lecture全真模拟训练MP3附文本,希望大家认真复习。

2019英语专八听力mini lecture全真模拟训练MP3附文本汇总

  [00:10.12]TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS--GRADE EIGHT

  [00:13.51]Section A MINI-LECTURE

  [00:16.97]In this section you will hear a mini-lecture.

  [00:20.29]You will hear the mini-lecture ONCE ONLY.

  [00:23.73]While listening to the mini-lecture,

  [00:25.82]please complete the gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE

  [00:30.29]and write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each gap.

  [00:34.70]Make sure the word(s) you fill in is (are) both grammatically

  [00:39.23]and semantically acceptable.

  [00:41.85]You may use the blank sheet for note-taking.

  [00:45.67]You have THIRTY seconds to preview the gap-filling task.

  [01:19.89]Now, listen to the mini-lecture.

  [01:22.30]When it is over, you will be given THREE minutes

  [01:25.05]to check your work.

  [01:27.41]Global Language

  [01:29.71]Good morning, everyone.

  [01:31.52]Today, we are going to discuss the status of global language.

  [01:36.21]Particularly, I will address four questions. What is a global language?

  [01:42.14]Why is a global language needed? Is a global language necessarily a good thing?

  [01:48.30]And is English a global language? First of all, what is a global language?

  [01:55.40]There is no official definition of "global" or "world" language,

  [02:00.37]but it essentially refers to a language that is learned and spoken internationally,

  [02:06.16]and is characterized not only

  [02:08.11]by the number of its native and second language speakers,

  [02:12.03]but also by its geographical distribution,

  [02:15.14]and its use in international organizations and in diplomatic relations.

  [02:21.11]A global language acts as a lingua franca, a common language

  [02:26.15]that enables people from diverse backgrounds and ethnicities to communicate

  [02:31.32]on a more or less equitable basis.

  [02:35.05]Historically, the essential factor for the establishment of a global language

  [02:41.16]is that it is spoken by those who wield power.

  [02:45.20]Latin was the lingua franca of its time,

  [02:48.31]although it was only ever a minority language within the Roman Empire as a whole.

  [02:54.32]Crucially, though, it was the language of the powerful leaders and administrators

  [03:00.11]and of the Roman military and this is what drove its rise to

  [03:04.65]arguably global language status.

  [03:07.98]Thus, language can be said to have no independent existence of its own,

  [03:14.26]and a particular language only dominates when its speakers dominate and,

  [03:19.86]by extension, fails when the people who speak it fail.

  [03:24.90]History shows us that a language becomes a global language

  [03:29.26]mainly due to the political power of its native speakers, and the economic power

  [03:34.92]with which it is able to maintain and expand its position.

  [03:39.77]Secondly, why is a global language needed?

  [03:44.07]It is often argued that the modern global village needs a global language

  [03:49.05]and that, particularly in a world of modern communications,

  [03:53.59]globalized trade and easy international travel,

  [03:57.51]a single lingua franca has never been more important.

  [04:02.05]With the advent of large international bodies such as the United Nations

  [04:07.46]and its various offshoots as well as collective organizations

  [04:11.95]such as the Commonwealth and the European Union,

  [04:15.62]the pressure to establish a worldwide lingua franca has never been greater.

  [04:21.78]As just one example of why a lingua franca is useful,

  [04:26.76]consider that up to one-third of the administration costs of the European Community

  [04:32.87]are taken up by translations into the various member languages.

  [04:38.28]Thirdly, is a global language necessarily a good thing?

  [04:43.26]While its advantages are self-evident, there are some legitimate concerns

  [04:48.56]that a dominant global language could also have some built-in drawbacks.

  [04:54.18]Among these may be the following:

  [04:57.10]Number one, there is a risk that the increased adoption of a global language

  [05:03.02]may lead to the weakening

  [05:04.95]and eventually the disappearance of some minority languages.

  [05:10.22]It is estimated that up to 80% of the world's 6,000 or so living languages

  [05:16.75]may die out within the next century, and some commentators believe

  [05:22.03]that a too-dominant global language may be a major contributing factor in this trend.

  [05:29.19]However, it seems likely that this is really only a direct threat in areas

  [05:34.99]where the global language is the natural first language.

  [05:39.16]Conversely, there is also some evidence

  [05:42.52]that the very threat of subjugation by a dominant language

  [05:46.56]can actually galvanize and strengthen movements

  [05:50.23]to support and protect minority languages e.g. Welsh in Wales, French in Canada.

  [05:58.14]Number two, there is concern that natural speakers of the global language

  [06:03.86]may be at an unfair advantage over those

  [06:06.91]who are operating in their second, or even third, language.

  [06:12.15]Number three, the insistence on one language to the exclusion of others

  [06:18.13]may also be seen as a threat to the ideas of multiculturalism.

  [06:23.54]Number four, another potential pitfall is linguistic complacency

  [06:29.23]on the part of natural speakers of a global language, a laziness and arrogance

  [06:35.14]resulting from the lack of motivation to learn other languages.

  [06:39.50]Arguably, this can already be observed in many Britons and Americans.

  [06:45.54]Finally, is English a global language?

  [06:49.46]As can be seen in more detail in the section on English today, on almost any basis,

  [06:56.55]English is the nearest thing there has ever been to a global language.

  [07:01.47]Its worldwide reach is much greater than

  [07:04.80]anything achieved historically by Latin or French,

  [07:08.55]and there has never been a language as widely spoken as English.

  [07:13.47]Many would reasonably claim that, in the fields of business, academics, science,

  [07:19.50]computing, education, transportation, politics and entertainment,

  [07:25.35]English is already established as the de facto lingua franca.

  [07:30.58]The UN, the nearest thing we have, or have ever had, to a global community,

  [07:36.86]currently uses five official languages: English, French, Spanish, Russian and Chinese,

  [07:45.20]and an estimated 85% of international organizations

  [07:50.01]have English as at least one of their official languages.

  [07:54.67]Even more starkly, though, about one third of international organizations

  [08:00.15]use English only, and this figure rises to almost 90%

  [08:05.31]among Asian international organizations.

  [08:09.11]As we have seen, a global language arises

  [08:12.53]mainly due to the political and economic power of its native speakers.

  [08:18.07]It was British imperial and industrial power

  [08:22.25]that sent English around the globe between the 17th and 20th Centuries.

  [08:28.79]The legacy of British imperialism has left many countries

  [08:33.33]with the language thoroughly institutionalized

  [08:36.32]in their courts, parliament, civil service, schools and higher education establishments.

  [08:43.78]In other countries, English provides a neutral means of communication

  [08:49.13]between different ethnic groups.

  [08:51.87]But it has been largely American economic and cultural supremacy

  [08:57.10]that has consolidated the position of the English language

  [09:01.08]and continues to maintain it today.

  [09:04.26]American dominance and influence worldwide

  [09:07.74]makes English crucially important for developing international markets,

  [09:12.91]especially in the areas of tourism and advertising,

  [09:17.01]and mastery of English also provides access to scientific,

  [09:21.74]technological and academic resources which would otherwise

  [09:26.16]be denied developing countries.

  [09:29.08]OK. I have given you a brief account of the definition of global language,

  [09:35.24]the necessity and drawbacks of having a global language

  [09:40.06]and finally English status in the global communication.

  [09:44.73]Next time, we shall examine the role of English plays in the cultural communication.

  [09:52.50]Now you have THREE minutes to check your work.

  [12:56.40]This is the end of Section A MINI-LECTURE.

2019专四专八考试在即,实力好课助你顺利过级!
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