[00:10.12]TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS--GRADE EIGHT
[00:13.51]Section A MINI-LECTURE
[00:16.97]In this section you will hear a mini-lecture.
[00:20.29]You will hear the mini-lecture ONCE ONLY.
[00:23.73]While listening to the mini-lecture,
[00:25.82]please complete the gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE
[00:30.29]and write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each gap.
[00:34.70]Make sure the word(s) you fill in is (are) both grammatically
[00:39.23]and semantically acceptable.
[00:41.85]You may use the blank sheet for note-taking.
[00:45.67]You have THIRTY seconds to preview the gap-filling task.
[01:19.89]Now, listen to the mini-lecture.
[01:22.30]When it is over, you will be given THREE minutes
[01:25.05]to check your work.
[01:27.38]Baby Body Language
[01:29.81]Good morning, everyone. Welcome to our lecture "series of body language".
[01:35.41]Today we are going to talk about baby body language.
[01:39.47]Baby body language is simple to interpret if you know how.
[01:44.28]Researchers and experts have come up with a helpful guide
[01:48.47]to common baby body language and what it means.
[01:52.28]Today, we are going to take a snapshot of some very common baby body languages.
[01:58.75]First, fist in mouth. In baby body language this means one of three things.
[02:05.97]Either the baby is hungry, teething or just wants something to suck on.
[02:11.50]We can easily tell the difference.
[02:13.68]If the baby is less than three months old, teething can be ruled out.
[02:18.86]If the baby has just eaten and clearly had enough, rule out hungry.
[02:24.06]If it's been a couple hours since the last feeding
[02:26.80]and the baby is chewing on their fist and crying or whimpering,
[02:30.65]it may be time to feed more or more often.
[02:34.39]Next, lip smacking or puckering. This is almost always an indication of hunger.
[02:41.61]Baby body language mimicking the motions of eating tells us what's on baby's mind.
[02:47.46]This is especially true if baby starts fussing and fidgeting,
[02:52.20]then increases to a full on wail.
[02:55.20]It can, however, indicate the need for something to suck on.
[02:59.56]Babies have an inherent need to suckle,
[03:02.39]sometimes more than is required to eat their food.
[03:06.00]Some babies respond well to a pacifier. Now a word about the pacifier.
[03:12.22]The pacifier is a controversial subject.
[03:15.27]When baby body language signifies a need for something to suck on,
[03:20.51]new parents may be picturing four year olds they have seen with pacifiers.
[03:26.24]In most cases babies no longer need a pacifier past the age of six months.
[03:32.09]In fact there will come a time
[03:34.40]when baby will use body language to spit the pacifier out.
[03:39.57]This is the time to stop offering it. When this is done there is usually no problem.
[03:45.86]I find that sometimes the parents are the cause for pacifier addiction
[03:50.40]because they continue to offer it when it's no longer needed.
[03:54.44]Thirdly, about crying. A crying baby indicates hunger, pain, discomfort or illness.
[04:02.41]If your baby is screaming at the top of their lungs with clenched fists
[04:06.45]and shows no indication of stopping, they are either hungry or in pain.
[04:11.18]On the other hand, there are times when a baby will get themselves upset
[04:15.47]and just cry for hours with no reason evident.
[04:18.65]New parents will quickly learn the different sounds
[04:21.88]made by their baby to express different needs.
[04:25.68]How will they know in the meantime?
[04:27.86]When baby body language presents itself with crying, first check normal problems.
[04:33.83]If it's been a while since the last feeding, offer milk.
[04:37.76]Check to see if the diaper needs changing or the baby has a rash.
[04:42.06]Try burping the baby by gently rubbing its back.
[04:46.10]Check for fever or other signs of illness. Never bounce or shake the baby.
[04:52.33]Bouncing and shaking can cause injury
[04:54.94]and also give the baby a feeling of insecurity which will only make them cry louder.
[05:01.42]Use a calm gentle swaying motion
[05:03.97]while holding the baby securely and close to the heart.
[05:08.14]Fourthly, flailing of arms and legs.
[05:11.25]Baby is wiggling, crying and trembling with arms and legs
[05:15.41]moving about and fists tightly clenched.
[05:19.02]Baby body language tells us the baby feels insecure.
[05:23.31]Baby is used to being in the womb where he is held tight and secure.
[05:27.85]This is especially true of newborn baby body language.
[05:32.27]Try wrapping baby securely in a blanket and holding them close.
[05:36.87]Leave room to breathe but keep arms and legs restricted.
[05:40.98]If baby continues to cry, there may be another issue.
[05:44.96]New parents shouldn't worry about spoiling the baby by picking him up.
[05:49.57]Babies and children need love and comfort
[05:52.24]to survive and develop a healthy mental state.
[05:56.66]Fifthly, legs drawn up and face contorted.
[06:00.83]This baby body language indicates gas, bloating and constipation.
[06:06.43]This is especially true when baby is crying and squirming.
[06:10.72]New parents should think about the pain you have when you experience these things.
[06:16.14]It's the same for baby. There are several techniques to help baby with this.
[06:20.87]Burping is one. Another technique is to gently hold baby's feet
[06:25.66]and push knees toward stomach repeatedly.
[06:29.02]This may relieve gas pressure. Gently rubbing the tummy may help too.
[06:34.37]If this problem happens often, new parents may want to consult their doctor.
[06:39.72]Baby could have a more serious problem such as lactose intolerance.
[06:45.38]Next, about pulling on ears.
[06:48.25]This baby body language presents itself with ear pulling
[06:51.86]accompanied by crying or whimpering.
[06:55.15]Baby may have a fever or be fussy.
[06:58.33]Sometimes baby will sleep more, but take longer to go to sleep.
[07:02.81]Baby body language may be inexpressive or seem lethargic.
[07:07.60]We should be aware these are symptoms
[07:09.90]that baby may have an ear infection or other illness.
[07:14.69]Now, about biting or gumming.
[07:17.49]New parents should know this baby body language means baby is teething.
[07:23.74]Biting and gumming everything they can is baby body language for, "My teeth hurt".
[07:30.21]Teething is often accompanied by drooling.
[07:33.76]Some babies run a low grade fever when teething as well.
[07:38.17]We can give baby a cold, clean washcloth to suck and chew on for teething pain.
[07:45.33]There are special teething lotions to rub on the gums as well.
[07:49.56]Be sure to use one intended for infants.
[07:52.55]Ask your doctor what fever reducer they recommend for infants.
[07:58.96]Finally, about eye rubbing.
[08:01.57]Naturally this baby body language may be a sign that baby has something in his eye.
[08:06.92]More commonly, this signifies fatigue.
[08:10.34]New parents can recognize a tired baby by the way he cries as well.
[08:15.94]If baby seems out of breath between yells, this is a sign of fatigue.
[08:21.05]Just like grownups, babies yawn when they run out of oxygen and are tired.
[08:26.09]New parents may also notice the common baby body language of eyelids drooping
[08:31.38]or opening and closing when baby is tired.
[08:34.74]OK. I have outlined eight baby body languages for you.
[08:39.03]You know, many of the body language experts
[08:42.45]study the development of baby behaviors and examine the patterns they change
[08:48.05]as the babies mature into adulthood.
[08:51.10]In our next lecture, we shall talk about this evolution of body languages.
[08:57.70]Now you have THREE minutes to check your work.
[12:01.66]This is the end of Section A MINI-LECTURE.
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