2013年tem4真题

2016-05-27 15:37:00来源:网络

2013年tem4真题

  英语专业四级真题是检验自己复习程度的好帮手,新东方在线专四频道整理了2013年tem4真题供考生们参考练习。

  TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS (2013)

  —GRADE FOUR—

  TIME LIMIT: 135 MIN

  PART I DICTATION [15 MIN]

  Listen to the following passage. Altogether the passage will be read to you four times. During the first reading, which will be done at normal speed, listen and try to understand the meaning. For the second and third readings, the passage will be read sentence by sentence, or phrase by phrase, with intervals of 15 seconds. The last reading will be done at normal speed again and during this time you should check your work. You will then be given 2 minutes to check through your work once more.

  Please write the whole passage on ANSWER SHEET ONE.

  PART II LISTENING COMPREHENSION [20 MIN]

  In Sections A, B and C you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the best answer to each question on Answer Sheet Two.

  SECTION A CONVERSATIONS

  In this section you will hear several conversations. Listen to the conversations carefully and then answer the questions that follow.

  Questions 1 to 3 are based on the following conversation. At the end of the conversation, you will be given 15 seconds to answer the questions.

  Now, listen to the conversation.

  1. According to the conversation, an example of “Christmas trimmings” could be

  A. presents.

  B. fruits.

  C. sauce.

  D. meat.

  2. A Christmas lunch would include all the following EXCEPT

  A. roast turkey.

  B. sweet potatoes.

  C. meat.

  D. carrots.

  3. Why did Helen come to Rob’s house?

  A. She wanted to talk to Rob.

  B. She had come to help Rob.

  C. She had been invited to lunch.

  D. She was interested in cooking.

  Questions 4 to 7 are based on the following conversation. At the end of the conversation, you will be given 20 seconds to answer the questions.

  Now, listen to the conversation.

  4. Why did the woman phone the club?

  A. She wanted to know more about it.

  B. She was a new comer and felt lonely.

  C. She wanted to learn a new language.

  D. She was interested in social activities.

  5. We learn from the conversation that the club

  A. mainly organizes language activities.

  B. accepts members from local students.

  C. has been set up for a long time.

  D. is increasing its membership.

  6. According to the conversation, the woman might come to practice German on

  A. Wednesday.

  B. Tuesday.

  C. Monday.

  D. Friday.

  7. What is the man going to do after the conversation?

  A. Call up the woman for her address.

  B. Wait for the woman to call him again.

  C. Mail the woman some information.

  D. Wait for the woman to pick up a form.

  Questions 8 to 10 are based on the following conversation. At the end of the conversation, you will be given 15 seconds to answer the questions.

  Now, listen to the conversation.

  8. According to the woman, what actually makes her job difficult?

  A. Difficult questions from interviewees.

  B. Embarrassing requests from interviewees.

  C. Lack of professional background.

  D. Lack of interviewing skills.

  9. The woman uses all the following adjectives when talking about attending job fairs EXCEPT

  A. prospective.

  B. useful.

  C. important.

  D. tiring.

  10. We learn from the conversation that the woman

  A. works better at job fairs.

  B. prefers honest people.

  C. often works on her own.

  D. is experienced in her work.

  SECTION B PASSAGES

  In this section, you will hear several passages. Listen to the passages carefully and then answer the questions that follow.

  Questions 11 to 13 are based on the following passage. At the end of the passage, you will be given 15 seconds to answer the questions.

  Now, listen to the passage.

  11. According to today''s weather forecast, which part of Europe has dry weather?

  A. Scandinavian mountains.

  B. Northwestern Europe.

  C. Northern Europe.

  D. Southern Europe.

  12. In which part of Europe does the weather stay both fine and cool?

  A. Southern Europe.

  B. Northern Europe.

  C. Eastern Europe.

  D. Northwestern Europe.

  13. In which region will the weather change tomorrow?

  A. Northern parts of the Mediterranean.

  B. Eastern parts of the Mediterranean.

  C. Central parts of the Mediterranean.

  D. Southern parts of the Mediterranean.

  Questions 14 to 17 are based on the following passage. At the end of the passage, you will be given 20 seconds to answer the questions.

  Now, listen to the passage.

  14. According to the passage, what benefit can technology bring to people?

  A. Closer contact with modern devices.

  B. Greater changes in social organization.

  C. Better understanding of mass media.

  D. More useful information to better their life.

  15. The speaker questions about everybody''s access to technological advances. The main reason is

  A. illiteracy.

  B. poverty.

  C. food shortage.

  D. ignorance.

  16. According to the UN plan, all the following will be achieved within ten years EXCEPT

  A. giving everyone a radio or TV.

  B. starting to carry out the scheme in ten years.

  C. offering internet service to more people.

  D. providing more job opportunities.

  17. What could be the topic of the passage?

  A. Growth in telecommunications.

  B. Technology and the developing world.

  C. Education and medical care.

  D. Building an information society.

  Questions 18 to 20 are based on the following passage. At the end of the passage, you will be given 15 seconds to answer the questions.

  Now, listen to the passage.

  18. People in Latin America wear something __________ to express their hopes for wealth in the New Year.

  A. new

  B. red

  C. white

  D. yellow

  19. Which of the following New Year’s traditions signals friendship?

  A. Throwing old dishes.

  B. Wearing something red.

  C. Wearing something white.

  D. Eating round fruits.

  20. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as one''s own New Year''s tradition?

  A. Watching TV at home.

  B. Going to bed early.

  C. Visiting friends.

  D. Running and shouting outside.

  SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST

  In this section, you will hear several news items. Listen to them carefully and then answer the questions that follow.

  Questions 21 and 22 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to answer the questions.

  Now, listen to the news.

  21. What is happening to the schools in Fairfax County this school year?

  A. 15 schools have started social studies.

  B. 15 schools have used digital textbooks.

  C. Students are ready to use electronic resources.

  D. Digital textbooks are used for social studies.

  22. With digital textbooks, schools have saved about __________ million dollars.

  A. 1

  B. 2

  C. 3

  D. 4

  Questions 23 and 24 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to answer the questions.

  Now, listen to the news.

  23. Who found the suspicious item at the airport?

  A. TSA agents.

  B. FBI agents.

  C. The police.

  D. Passengers.

  24. Which of the following statements is INCORRECT?

  A. The terminal was closed temporarily afterwards.

  B. There was a thorough search inside the airport.

  C. Passengers at the airport were safe and sound.

  D. The security authorities identified the explosives.

  Questions 25 and 26 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to answer the questions.

  Now, listen to the news.

  25. According to the news item, doctors use art therapy to treat the following problems EXCEPT

  A. alcohol abuse.

  B. smoking.

  C. depression.

  D. schizophrenia.

  26. Why did doctors introduce art therapy in the first place?

  A. To prevent patients from smoking.

  B. To better understand patients.

  C. To get patients occupied.

  D. To teach patients some skills.

  Question 27 and 28 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to answer the questions.

  Now, listen to the news.

  27. What is the main purpose of the new rules?

  A. To reduce the number of pilots on duty.

  B. To prevent pilots from working overtime.

  C. To ensure an adequate amount of sleep.

  D. To fix the amount of work for each pilot.

  28. The Independent Pilots Association was unhappy about the new rules because they

  A. had only covered cargo plane pilots.

  B. had failed to cover all the pilots.

  C. would be put into effect in two years.

  D. would be too costly if implemented.

  Questions 29 and 30 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to answer the questions.

  Now, listen to the news.

  29. Why is increase in livestock production necessary?

  A. Because livestock production is highly efficient.

  B. Because more people will become wealthier.

  C. Because it may help double food production.

  D. Because it has fewer ecological risks.

  30. What does the word “challenge” mean in the news item?

  A. Balance between human survival and ecology.

  B. Conflict between less land and more production.

  C. Difference between present and future needs.

  D. Calls by environmental critics to consume less meat.


[page]

  PART III CLOZE [15 MIN]

  Decide which of the choices given below would best complete the passage if inserted in the corresponding blanks. Mark the best choice for each blank on Answer Sheet Two.

  Everyone knows that taxation is necessary in a modern state: without it, it (31) ______ not be possible to pay the soldiers and policemen who protect us; (32) ______ the workers in government offices who (33) ______ our health, our food, our water, and all the other things that we cannot do for ourselves. (34) ______ taxation, we pay for things that we need just (35) ______ we need somewhere to live and something to eat. But (36) ______ everyone knows that taxation is necessary, different people have different ideas about (37) ______ taxation should be arranged.

  In most countries, a direct tax on (38) ______, which is called income tax, (39) ______. It is arranged in such (40) ______ that the poorest people pay nothing, and the percentage of tax grows (41) ______ as the taxpayer''s income grows. In some countries, for example, the tax on the richest people (42) ______ as high as ninety-five per cent!

  (43) ______ countries with taxation nearly (44) ______ have indirect taxation too. Many things imported into the country have to pay taxes or “duties.” Of course, it is the men and women who buy these imported things in the shops (45) ______ really have to pay the duties, in the (46) ______ of higher prices. In some countries, (47) ______, there is a tax on things sold in the shops. If the most necessary things are taxed, a lot of money is (48) ______ but the poor people suffer most. If unnecessary things (49) ______ jewels and fur coats are taxed, less money is obtained but the tax is (50) ______, as the rich pay it.

  31.

  A. can

  B. may

  C. could

  D. would

  32.

  A. nor

  B. neither

  C. never

  D. not

  33.

  A. look into

  B. look over

  C. look after

  D. look through

  34.

  A. In accordance with

  B. By means of

  C. With reference to

  D. On account of

  35.

  A. as well as

  B. as good as

  C. as such as

  D. as much as

  36.

  A. if

  B. when

  C. though

  D. as

  38.

  A. persons

  B. sectors

  C. communities

  D. classes

  39.

  A. remains

  B. stays

  C. exists

  D. happens

  40.

  A. form

  B. way

  C. measure

  D. method

  41.

  A. quicker

  B. speedier

  C. more

  D. larger

  42.

  A. grows up

  B. increases up

  C. goes up

  D. lifts up

  43.

  A. But

  B. Consequently

  C. Similarly

  D. And

  44.

  A. periodically

  B. almost

  C. often

  D. always

  45.

  A. which

  B. who

  C. what

  D. whom

  46.

  A. manner

  B. form

  C. means

  D. way

  47.

  A. either

  B. also

  C. too

  D. often

  48.

  A. lent

  B. saved

  C. borrowed

  D. collected

  49.

  A. alike

  B. like

  C. as

  D. for

  50.

  A. heavier

  B. fairer

  C. finer

  D. better


[page]

  PART IV GRAMMAR & VOCABULARY [15 MIN]

  There are thirty sentences in this section. Beneath each sentence there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Choose one word or phrase that best completes the sentence.

  Mark your answers on Answer Sheet Two.

  51. Facing the board of directors, he didn’t deny __________ breaking the agreement.

  A. him B. it C. his D. its

  52. Xinchun returned from aboard a different man. The italicized part functions as a (n) __________.

  A. appositive (同位语) B. object C. adverbial D. complement.

  53. Which of the following is a compound word (复合词)?

  A. Nonsmoker.

  B. Deadline.

  C. Meanness.

  D. Misfit.

  54. Which of the following sentences contains subjunctive mood?

  A. Lucy insisted that her son get home before 5 o’clock?

  B. She used to drive to work, but now she takes the city metro.

  C. Walk straight ahead, and don''t turn till the second traffic lights.

  D. Paul will cancel his flight if he cannot get his visa by Friday.

  55. The following determiners(限定词) can be used with both plural and uncountable nouns EXCEPT

  A. more. B. enough. C. many. D. such.

  56. Which of the italicized parts indicates CONTRAST?

  A. She opened the door and quietly went in.

  B. Victoria likes music and Sam is fond of sports.

  C. Think it over again and you’ll get an answer.

  D. He is somewhat arrogant, and I don''t like this.

  57. Which of the following CANNOT be used as a nominal substitute(名词替代词)?

  A. Much.

  B. Neither.

  C. One.

  D. Quarter.

  58. All the following sentences definitely indicate future time EXCEPT

  A. Mother is to have tea with Aunt Betty at four.

  B. The President is coming to the UN next week,

  C. The school pupils will be home by now.

  D. He is going to email me the necessary information.

  59. Which of the following sentences is grammatically INCORRECT?

  A. Politics are the art or science of government.

  B. Ten miles seems like a long walk to me.

  C. Mumps is a kind of infectious disease.

  D. All the furniture has arrived undamaged.

  60. Which of in the following phrases indicates a subject-predicate relationship?

  A. The arrival of the tourists

  B. The law of Newton

  C. The occupation of the island

  D. The plays of Oscar Wilde

  61. Which of the following italicized parts serves as an appositive?

  A. He is not the man to draw back.

  B. Tony hit back the urge to tell a lie.

  C. Larry has a large family to support.

  D. There is really nothing to fear.

  62. Which of the following is NOT an imperative sentence?

  A. Let me drive you home, shall I?

  B. You will mind your own business!

  C. Come and have dinner with us.

  D. I wish you could stay behind.

  63. If it _______ tomorrow, the match would be put off.

  A. were to rain

  B. was to rain

  C. was raining

  D. had rained

  64. Which of the following sentences expresses a fact?

  A. Mary and her son must be home by now.

  B. Careless reading must give poor results.

  C. It’s getting late, and I must leave now.

  D. He must be working late at the office.

  65. The following are all dynamic verbs(动态动词) EXCEPT

  A. remain. B. turn. C. write. D. knock.

  66. __________ to school life was less difficult than the pupil had expected.

  A. Adhering B. Adopting C. Adjusting D. Acquainting

  67. He is fed up with the same old dreary routine, and wants to quit his job. The underlined part means __________.

  A. dull B. boring C. long D. hard

  68. At last night’s party Larry said something that I though was beyond me. The underlined part means __________.

  A. I was unable to do B. I couldn’t understand

  C. I was unable to stop D. I couldn’t tolerate

  69. The couple __________their old house and sold it for a vast profit.

  A. did for B. did in C. did with D. did up

  70. Sally contributed a lot to the project, but she never once accepted all the __________ for herself.

  A. credit B. attention C. focus D. award

  71. The child nodded, apparently content with his mother’s promise. The underlined part means __________.

  A. as far as one has learnt B. as far as one is concerned

  C. as far as one can see D. as far as one is told

  72. The __________ that sport builds character is well accepted by people nowadays.

  A. issue B. argument C. point D. sentence

  73. Everyone in the office knows that Melinda takes infinite care over her work. The underlined part means __________.

  A. limited B. unnecessary C. overdue D. much

  74. The new measure will reduce the chance of serious injury in the event of an accident. The underlined part means __________.

  A. if an accident happens B. if an accident can be prevented

  C. before an accident D. during an accident

  75. Traditionally, local midwives would __________ all the babies in the area.

  A. handle B. produce C. deliver D. help

  76. No food or drink is allowed on the premises. The underlined part means __________.

  A. proposition B. advertisement C. building D. string

  77. The court would not accept his appeal unless __________ evidence is provided.

  A. conclusive B. definite C. eventual D. concluding

  78. As soon as he opened the door, a __________ of cold air swept through the house.

  A. flow B. movement C. rush D. blast

  79. She really wanted to say something at the meeting, but eventually __________ from it.

  A. prevented B. refrained C. limited D. restricted

  80. The couple told the decorator that they wanted their bedroom gaily painted. The underlined part means __________.

  A. brightly B. light-heartedly C. cheerfully D. lightly


[page]

  PART V READING COMPREHENSION [25 MIN]

  In this section there are four passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the best answer.

  Mark your answers on Answer Sheet Two.

  TEXT A

  The art of public speaking began in ancient Greece over 2,000 years ago. Now, twitter, instant messaging, e-mail, blogs and chat forums offer rival approaches to communication—but none can replace the role of a great speech.

  The spoken word can handle various vital functions: persuading or inspiring, informing, paying tribute, entertaining, or simply introducing someone or something or accepting something.

  Over the past year, the human voice has helped guide us over the ups and downs of what was certainly a stormy time.

  Persuasion is used in dealing with or reconciling different points of view. When the leaders met in Copenhagen in December 2009, persuasive words from activists encouraged them to commit themselves to firmer action.

  Inspirational speeches confront the emotions. They focus on topics and matters that are close to people''s hearts. During wars, generals used inspiring speeches to prepare the troops for battle.

  A speech that conveys knowledge and enhances understanding can inform us. The information must be clear, accurate, and expressed in a meaningful and interesting way. When the H1N1 pandemic(流行病)was announced, the idea of “swine flu”(猪流感)scared many people. Informative speeches from World Health Organization officials helped people to keep their panic under control so they could take sensible precautions.

  Sad events are never easy to deal with but a speech that pays tribute to the loss of a loved one and gives praise for their contribution can be comforting. Madonna''s speech about Michael Jackson, after his death, highlighted the fact that he will continue to live on through his music.

  It''s not only in world forums where public speaking plays an important role. It can also be surprisingly helpful in the course of our own lives.

  If you’re taking part in a debate you need to persuade the listeners of the soundness of your argument. In sports, athletes know the importance of a pep talk(鼓舞士气的讲话)before a match to inspire teammates. You yourself may be asked to do a presentation at college or work to inform the others about an area of vital importance.

  On a more personal level, a friend may be upset and need comforting. Or you might be asked to introduce a speaker at a family event or to speak at a wedding, where your language will be needed to move people or make them laugh.

  Great speaking ability is not something we''re born with. Even Barack Obama works hard to perfect every speech. For a brilliant speech, there are rules that you can put to good use. To learn those rules you have to practice and learn from some outstanding speeches in the past.

  81. The author thinks the spoken word is still irreplaceable because

  A. it has always been used to inspire or persuade people.

  B. it has a big role to play in the entertainment business.

  C. it plays important roles in human communication.

  D. it is of great use in everyday-life context.

  82. Which of the following statements is INCORRECT about the role of public speaking?

  A. Speeches at world forums can lead to effective solutions to world problems.

  B. Speeches from medical authorities can calm people down in times of pandemics.

  C. The morale of soldiers before a battle can be boosted by senior officers'' speeches.

  D. Speeches paying tribute to the dead can comfort the mourners.

  83. Public speaking can play all the following roles EXCEPT

  A. to convince people in a debate.

  B. to inform people at a presentation.

  C. to advise people at work.

  D. to entertain people at a wedding.

  84. According to the passage, which of the following best explains the author''s view on “great speaking ability”?

  A. It comes from observing rules.

  B. It can be perfected with easy effort.

  C. It can be acquired from birth.

  D. It comes from learning and practice.

  85. What is the main idea of the passage?

  A. Public speaking in international forums.

  B. The many uses of public speaking.

  C. Public speaking in daily life context.

  D. The rules of public speaking.

  TEXT B

  Every business needs two things, says Skullcandy CEO Rick Alden: inspiration and desperation. In 2001, Alden had both. He''d sold two snowboarding businesses, and he was desperately bored. But he had an idea: He wanted to make a new kind of headphone.

  “I kept seeing people missing their cell phone calls because they were listening to music,” he explains. Then I''m in a chairlift(索道), I''ve got my headphones on, and I realize my phone is ringing. As 1 take my gloves off and reach for my phone, I think, “It can''t be that tough to make headphones with two plugs, one for music and one for your cell phone.” Alden described what he wanted to a designer, perfected a prototype, and outsourced(外包)manufacturing overseas.

  Alden then started designing headphones into helmets, backpacks - anywhere that would make it easy to listen to music while snowboarding. “Selling into board and skate shops wasn''t a big research effort,” he explains. “Those were the only guys I knew!”

  Alden didn’t want to be a manufacturer. And by outsourcing, he''d hoped he could get the business off the ground without debt. But he was wrong. So he asked his wife, “Can I put a mortgage(抵押贷款) on the house? She said, ‘What is the worst thing that can happen? We lose the house, we sell our cars, and we start all over again.’ I definitely married the right woman!”

  For the next two years, Alden juggled mortgage payments and payments to his manufacturers. “Factories won''t ship your product till they get paid,” he says. “But it takes four or five months to get a mortgage company so upset that they knock on your door. So we paid the factory first.”

  Gradually, non-snowboarders began to notice the colorful headphones. In 2006, the company started selling them in 1,400 FYE (For Your Entertainment) stores. “We knew that nine out often people walking into that store would be learning about Skullcandy for the first time. Why would they look at brands they knew and take home a new brand instead? We had agreed to buy back anything we didn’t sell, but we were dealing with huge numbers. It’d kill us to take back all the products.”

  Alden’s fears faded as Skullcandy became the No. 1 headphone seller in those stores and tripled its revenue to $120 million in one year. His key insight was that headphones weren’t gadgets; they were a fashion accessory. “In the beginning,” he says, “that little white wire that said you had an iPod—that was cool. But now wearing the white bud means you’re just like everyone else. Headphones occupy this critical piece of cranial real estate and are highly visible.”

  Today, Skullcandy is America''s second-largest headphone supplier, after Sony. With 79 employees, the company is bigger than Alden ever imagined.

  86. Alden came up with the idea of a new kind of headphone because he

  A. was no longer in snowboarding business.

  B. had no other business opportunities.

  C. was very fond of modern music.

  D. saw an inconvenience among mobile users.

  87. The new headphone was originally designed for

  A. snowboarders.

  B. motorcyclists.

  C. mountain hikers.

  D. marathon runners.

  88. Did Alden solve the money problem?

  A. He sold his house and his cars.

  B. Factories could ship products before being paid.

  C. He borrowed money from a mortgage company.

  D. He borrowed money from his wife''s family.

  89. What did Alden do to promote sales in FYE stores?

  A. He spent more money on product advertising.

  B. He promised to buy back products not sold.

  C. He agreed to sell products at a discount.

  D. He improved the colour design of the product.

  90. Alden sees headphones as

  A. a sign of self-confidence.

  B. a symbol of status.

  C. part of fashion.

  D. a kind of device.

  TEXT C

  I was standing in my kitchen wondering what to have for lunch when my friend Taj called.

  “Sit down,” she said.

  I thought she was going to tell me she had just gotten the haircut from hell. I laughed and said, “It can''t be that bad.”

  But it was. Before the phone call, I had 30 years of retirement saving in a “safe” fund with a brilliant financial guru(金融大亨).When I put down the phone, my savings were gone. I felt as if I had died and, for some unknown reason, was still breathing.

  Since Bernie Madoff’s arrest on charges of running a $65 million Ponzi scheme, I’ve read many articles about how we investors should have known what was going on. I wish I could say I had reservations about Madoff before “the Call”, but I did not.

  On New Year’s Eve, three weeks after we lost our savings, six of us Madoff people gathered at Taj''s house for dinner. As we were sitting around the table, someone asked, “If you could have your money back right now, but it would mean giving up what you have learned by losing it, would you take the money or would you take what losing the money has given you?”

  My husband was still in financial shock. He said, “I just want the money back.” I wasn''t certain where I stood. I knew that losing our money had cracked me wide open. I’d been walking around like what the Buddhists call a hungry ghost: always focused on the bite that was yet to come, not the one in my mouth. No matter how much I ate or had or experienced, it didn’t satisfy me, because I wasn’t really taking it in, wasn''t absorbing it. Now I was forced to pay attention. Still, I couldn''t honestly say that if someone had offered me the money back, I would turn it down.

  But the other four all said that what they were seeing about themselves was incalculable, and they didn’t think it would have become apparent without the ground of financial stability being ripped out from underneath them.

  My friend Michael said, “I’d started to get complacent. It’s as if the muscles of my heart started to atrophy(萎缩). Now they’re awake, alive—and I don’t want to go back.”

  These weren’t just empty words. Michael and his wife needed to take in boarders to meet their expenses. Taj was so broke that she was moving into someone’s garage apartment in three weeks. Three friends had declared bankruptcy and weren''t sure where or how they were going to live.

  91. What did the author learn from Taj’s call?

  A. had got an awful haircut.

  B. They had lost their retirement savings.

  C. Taj had just retired from work.

  D. They were going to meet for lunch.

  92. How did the author feel in the following weeks?

  A. Angry.

  B. Disappointed.

  C. Indifferent.

  D. Desperate.

  93. According to the passage, to which was she “forced to pay attention”?

  A. Her friends.

  B. Her husband.

  C. Her lost savings.

  D. Her experience.

  94. Which of the following statements is CORRECT about her friends?

  A. Her friends valued their experience more.

  B. Her friends felt the same as she did.

  C. Her friends were in a better financial situation.

  D Her friends were more optimistic than she.

  95. What is the message of the passage?

  A. Desire for money is human nature.

  B. One has to be decisive during crises.

  C. Understanding gained is more important than money lost.

  D. It is natural to see varied responses to financial crises.

  TEXT D

  In the 19th century, there used to be a model of how to be a good person. There are all these torrents of passion flowing through you. Your job, as captain of your soul, is to erect dams to keep these passions in check. Your job is to just say no to laziness, lust, greed, drug use and the other sins.

  These days that model is out of fashion. You usually can’t change your behaviour by simply resolving to do something. Knowing what to do is not the same as being able to do it. Your willpower is not like a dam that can block the torrent of self-indulgence. It''s more like a muscle, which tires easily. Moreover, you''re a social being. If everybody around you is overeating, you’ll probably do so, too.

  The 19th-century character model was based on an understanding of free will. Today, we know that free will is bounded. People can change their lives, but ordering change is not simple because many things, even within ourselves, are beyond our direct control.

  Much of our behaviour, for example, is guided by unconscious habits. Researchers at Duke University calculated that more than 40 percent of the actions we take are governed by habit, not actual decisions. Researchers have also come to understand the structure of habits—cue, routine, reward.

  You can change your own personal habits. If you leave running shorts on the floor at night, that''ll be a cue to go running in the morning. Don’t try to ignore your afternoon snack craving. Every time you feel the cue for a snack, insert another routine. Take a walk.

  Their research thus implies a different character model, which is supposed to manipulate the neural(神经系统的)networks inside.

  To be an effective person, under this model, you are supposed to coolly examine your own unconscious habits, and the habits of those under your care. You are supposed to devise strategies to alter the cues and routines. Every relationship becomes slightly manipulative, including your relationship with yourself. You''re trying to arouse certain responses by implanting certain cues.

  This is a bit disturbing, because the important habitual neural networks are not formed by mere routine, nor can they be reversed by clever cues. They are burned in by emotion and strengthened by strong yearnings, like the yearnings for admiration and righteousness.

  If you think you can change your life in a clever way, the way an advertiser can get you to buy an air freshener, you’re probably wrong. As the Victorians understood, if you want to change your life, don’t just look for a clever cue. Commit to some larger global belief.

  96. Which of the following is a key element in the 19th-century character model?

  A. Passion.

  B. Action.

  C. Capability.

  D. Determination.

  97. The 19th-century model supposedly does not work because

  A. there were many other factors beyond one''s control.

  B. it has worked unsatisfactorily most of the time.

  C. the comparison of free will to a dam is groundless.

  D. what one wishes to do should be considered carefully.

  98. What is the main implication of the research at Duke University?

  A. Habit is key to one''s behaviour.

  B. One’s behaviour is difficult to change.

  C. Both habit and will power are important.

  D. Habit has an unidentified structure.

  99. According to the new character model, personal behaviour could be altered through

  A. cues to stop all the former unconscious habits.

  B. cues to manipulate the habitual neural responses.

  C. techniques to devise different physical cues.

  D. techniques to supplement old routines.

  100. We learn from the passage that the new character model

  A. stresses the neural and psychological aspects of habit change.

  B. can bring about changes in one''s life like what advertisers do.

  C. has been used to change behaviour successfully.

  D. deals better with emotional aspects of behaviour.

[page]

  PART VI WRITING [45 MIN]

  SECTION A COMPOSITION [35 MIN]

  Most of us, as students, are careful with our money in daily life: we collect all kinds of coupons(优惠券); we look for group-buy deals if we eat out or travel; we don''t buy clothes unless in a sale. However, some people think that all this may not make us smart consumers. What is your opinion?

  Write on ANSWER SHEET THREE a composition of about 200 words.

  You are to write in three parts.

  In the first part, state specifically what your opinion is.

  In the second part, provide one or two reasons or your experience (s) to support your opinion.

  In the last part, bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or make a summary.

  You should supply an appropriate title for your composition.

  Marks will be awarded for content, organization, language and appropriateness. Failure to follow the instructions may result in a loss of marks.

  SECTION B NOTE-WRITING [10 MIN]

  Write on ANSWER SHEET THREE a note of about 50-60 words based on the following situation:

  Your former high-school classmate (Mathew or Grace) is coming to visit you in the dorm. But, you have got something urgent to do and thus cannot wait for him/her there. Leave a note on the door, expressing your apology and telling him/her how to find you. You must make clear where you are in the note.

  Marks will be awarded for content, organization, language and appropriateness.

  — THE END —


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