[00:01.56]SECTION B CONVERSATIONS
[00:04.86]In this section you will hear two conversations.
[00:08.88]At the end of each conversation,
[00:11.22]five questions will be asked about what was said.
[00:15.38]Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken once only.
[00:21.37]After each question there will be a ten-second pause.
[00:26.04]During the pause, you should read the four choices of A, B, C and D,
[00:33.46]and mark the best answer to each question on Answer Sheet Two.
[00:39.51]You have 30 seconds to preview the questions.
[01:13.12]Now, listen to the conversations.
[01:19.00]Questions 1 to 5 are based on Conversation One.
[01:23.32]M: Today, we've Professor McKay on our morning talk show.
[01:27.22]Good morning, Professor McKay.
[01:29.33]W: Good morning.
[01:30.75]M: I've heard that you and your team
[01:32.87]have just completed a report on old age.
[01:36.18]W: That's right.
[01:37.79]M: Could you tell me what your report is about?
[01:40.55]W: Well, the report basically looks into the various beliefs
[01:44.91]that people hold about old age and tries to verify them.
[01:49.73]M: And what do you think your report can achieve?
[01:52.84]W: We hope that it will somehow
[01:54.55]help people to change their feelings about old age.
[01:58.77]The problem is that far too many of us believe
[02:01.74]that most old people are poor, lonely, and unhappy.
[02:06.71]As a result, we tend to find old people, as a group, unattractive.
[02:12.44]And this is very dangerous for our society.
[02:16.52]M: But surely we cannot escape the fact
[02:19.12]that many old people are lonely and many are sick.
[02:22.94]W: No, we can't.
[02:24.85]But we must also remember that the proportion of such people
[02:28.65]is no greater among the 60-70 age group
[02:32.51]than among the 50-60 age group.
[02:36.19]M: In other words,
[02:37.14]there is no more mental illness, for example,
[02:39.60]among the 60s-70s than among the 50s-60s.
[02:44.03]W: Right! And why should there be?
[02:47.88]Why should we expect people to suddenly change
[02:51.44]when they reach their 60th or 70th birthday
[02:55.10]any more than they did when they reached their 21st?
[02:59.21]M: But one would expect there to be more physical illness
[03:02.26]among old people, surely.
[03:04.46]W: Why should one expect this?
[03:06.68]After all, those people who reach the age of 65 or 70
[03:11.79]are the strong among us.
[03:13.99]The weak die mainly in childhood,
[03:16.45]then in their 40s and 50s.
[03:19.40]M: Do you find that young people these days
[03:22.11]are not as concerned about their parents
[03:24.31]as their parents were about theirs?
[03:27.12]W: We have found nothing that suggests
[03:29.17]that family feeling is either dying or dead.
[03:32.98]There do not appear to be large numbers of young people
[03:36.13]who are trying, for example,
[03:38.35]to have their dear old mother locked up in a mental hospital.
[03:42.51]M: Don't many more parents live apart from their married children
[03:46.08]then used to be the case?
[03:49.00]but this is because parents and their married children
[03:51.91]usually live in separate households
[03:54.66]because they prefer it that way,
[03:56.97]not because the children refuse to have mum and dad living with them.
[04:01.72]M: Is this a good thing, do you think?
[04:04.23]W: I think that it's an excellent arrangement.
[04:07.19]We all like to keep part of our lives private,
[04:10.25]even from those we love dearly.
[04:12.86]I certainly don't think
[04:14.39]that it's a sign of the increased loneliness of old age.
[04:19.10]Questions 1 to 5 are based on Conversation One.
[04:23.35]1. What is Professor McKay's report about?
[04:37.46]2. What is the purpose of Professor McKay's report?
[04:52.07]3. What do we learn from the conversation
[04:55.83]about Professor McKay's view?
[05:07.87]4. What does Professor McKay think about family feeling?
[05:22.86]5. What is Professor McKay's attitude
[05:27.01]toward more parents' living apart from their children?
[05:39.53]This is the end of Conversation One.
[05:45.09]Questions 6 to 10 are based on Conversation Two.
[05:49.19]M: Julie Ross is the author of Practical Parenting.
[05:52.99]She has been running parenting workshops for about 18 years now.
[05:57.30]Hey, Julie. Good morning.
[05:58.86]W: Good morning.
[06:00.87]M: So let's go right into some of the things that parents used to do,
[06:05.42]corporal punishment for example,
[06:07.32]to try and discipline their kids, at least gain control.
[06:11.53]Firstly, you say that parents should not say "No" all the time.
[06:16.44]So let's use an example here,
[06:18.49]my son is playing with the safety pin in the electric socket.
[06:22.90]I am probably gonna say, Jack, no, don't do that.
[06:27.47]What's a better way to go about it?
[06:29.67]W: Well, I actually believe
[06:31.87]that "no" should be used in those occasions.
[06:35.43]It should be our word that can stop our children.
[06:38.99]But if they get desensitized to it,
[06:41.69]then when you say "no,
[06:43.57]don't stick that into the socket",
[06:45.82]they are not gonna be able to listen to it.
[06:48.83]M: So only on rare occasions
[06:51.50]when it's absolutely important to use the word "no".
[06:55.36]What about the I-message?
[06:57.81]Give me an example of that.
[06:59.97]W: I am a big believer in I-messages.
[07:03.33]And they sound like this.
[07:05.28]When you throw the ball in the house,
[07:07.79]I feel annoyed because it could break something.
[07:11.25]I would like you to play with something else instead.
[07:15.27]What we wanna do here is we want to make it about us
[07:19.23]in terms of setting the rules, as parents.
[07:22.84]We are supposed to be the leaders in the house.
[07:26.20]And now I-message does refer to "I am the parent,
[07:31.05]I am in charge, and I am comfortable being in charge".
[07:36.26]M: Tell me how this next concept is.
[07:39.21]That is the "when and then" rule---the best example I can think of---
[07:44.63]your children are eating dinner but they wanna go out and play.
[07:48.23]OK, so, a lot of people will say, hey,
[07:51.45]if you eat all of the food on your plate, you can go out and play.
[07:56.32]What's wrong with that?
[07:57.96]W: Children hear the word "if" as a challenge, as a threat.
[08:02.47]And they will rise to that challenge. It's like "Really? If…?
[08:08.51]OK, let's just test that out".
[08:11.92]But the either-or, or the when-then choices,
[08:15.75]when you've done these order things.
[08:18.07]So that it's a work first, play later.
[08:21.43]When you've done the meal, then you can go outside.
[08:25.39]M: So they don't hear the word "if" as encouragement.
[08:29.46]They see it as a challenge and they are gonna rebel against it.
[08:34.11]W: You bet.
[08:36.02]Questions 6 to 10 are based on Conversation Two.
[08:40.03]6. What is the conversation mainly about?
[08:54.54]7. Who is Julie Ross?
[09:08.47]8. According to the man,
[09:11.47]when should parents say "no" to their kids?
[09:24.60]9. What does I-message refer to?
[09:38.62]10. How do children see the word "if"?
[09:51.74]This is the end of Conversation Two.