2019-01-09 10:35:09 来源：网络专四专八资料下载
[00:25.13]SECTION A MINI-LECTURE
[00:28.45]In this section
[00:29.37]you will hear a mini-lecture.
[00:31.56]You will hear the mini-lecture
[00:34.47]While listening to the mini-lecture,
[00:36.29]please complete the gap-filling task
[00:38.37]on ANSWER SHEET ONE and write
[00:40.85]NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS
[00:42.57]for each gap.
[00:44.41]Make sure the word(s) you fill in
[00:47.53]is (are) both grammatically
[00:50.28]and semantically acceptable.
[00:52.64]You may use the blank sheet
[00:55.91]You have THIRTY seconds
[00:57.20]to preview the gap-filling task.
[01:29.71]Now listen to the mini-lecture.
[01:31.80]When it is over,
[01:33.05]you will be given THREE minutes
[01:34.49]to check your work.
[01:37.33]Between Spoken and Written English
[01:40.53]Good morning everyone,
[01:42.93]is about the difference
[01:43.99]between spoken and written English.
[01:47.05]Speech and writing are
[01:48.46]two independent methods
[01:52.70]〝the oral medium of transmission
[01:56.01]i.e. the spoken language〞.
[01:58.39]Writing involves marking a surface
[02:01.23]that convey one's thoughts
[02:02.62]and ideas and as Crystal remarks,
[02:06.12]〝Written English has provided
[02:07.48]the standard that society values,
[02:10.52]and its relative permanence
[02:12.06]and worldwide circulation
[02:14.17]have given it a very special place
[02:16.30]with the life of the community.〞
[02:18.52]Every language learner
[02:19.97]aspires to have a good grip
[02:21.87]and command over
[02:23.06]both spoken and written language.
[02:25.76]Failure in expressing either of them
[02:28.01]will render him ineffective
[02:31.01]when it comes to
[02:31.85]acquiring language skills
[02:33.54]in the true sense of the word.
[02:35.74]Both forms of language,
[02:37.22]therefore, are very important.
[02:39.96]They differ from each other
[02:41.42]to a great extent.
[02:43.25]The following are
[02:44.13]some of the major differences
[02:45.94]in both spoken and written English.
[02:49.13]One difference that exists
[02:50.83]between speech and writing
[02:52.65]is the distinction
[02:53.84]between the phonic
[02:55.14]and the graphic substances.
[02:57.24]The former is the medium
[02:58.63]used in speech,
[03:00.24]where the vocal organs produce
[03:04.12]The latter is used in writing,
[03:06.35]which consists of the hand
[03:08.06]creating marks on a surface.
[03:10.55]However, this physical difference
[03:12.74]is not the only factor
[03:15.40]the two mediums.
[03:17.28]There are also differences
[03:19.24]such as the use of grammar
[03:22.31]which also differ
[03:23.61]according to whether the person
[03:25.07]is speaking or writing to
[03:28.73]On top of the above,
[03:30.52]spoken English is very informal
[03:33.13]while written English is formal.
[03:36.51]is needed in spoken English
[03:38.35]because we are aided
[03:39.64]by facial expressions, gestures,
[03:42.12]and body language
[03:43.64]to express our meaning
[03:45.16]effectively and properly.
[03:47.37]On the other hand, written English
[03:49.34]is ineffective and handicapped
[03:51.77]without proper use of punctuation.
[03:54.79]Many speakers are bold
[03:56.34]and confident at the time
[03:59.38]But most of them find themselves
[04:01.27]lacking in confidence
[04:02.77]and reluctant to write
[04:04.77]because they know
[04:05.84]that once they write,
[04:07.21]their words are recorded
[04:09.16]and they cannot defend themselves.
[04:12.46]are exposed in writing.
[04:14.47]In spoken English, there
[04:15.95]is no role of spelling.
[04:18.48]But spelling does
[04:19.44]play a very important role in writing.
[04:22.46]Many good speakers are
[04:23.55]found being a horrible speller
[04:25.72]of the word.
[04:27.03]Their spelling lowers their image
[04:29.89]among their colleagues
[04:31.45]and their readers.
[04:32.43]Speakers often ignore
[04:33.87]some of the basic rules of grammar,
[04:36.61]for they are only interested
[04:38.16]in conveying their messages.
[04:41.02]They do not stick to the rules
[04:44.04]On the other hand, writing
[04:45.46]is never accurate
[04:47.17]and impressive unless it is
[04:52.06]Therefore, all the great
[04:53.49]and successful writers
[04:55.87]its due importance
[04:57.31]in their writings.
[04:58.94]Spelling is what creates problems
[05:00.88]for many writers,
[05:02.58]and in the same way pronunciation
[05:04.84]is a problem for many speakers.
[05:07.92]Many speakers find it difficult
[05:09.71]to pronounce the words correctly.
[05:12.81]They have to make efforts to
[05:14.21]learn correct pronunciation
[05:16.44]while writers have no such worries.
[05:19.51]Speech is time-based,
[05:20.93]active and does not last long.
[05:22.72]There is no time lag
[05:25.03]between production and reception,
[05:26.86]and given the spontaneity and speed
[05:29.48]with which speechis
[05:32.02]is no time for planning.
[05:34.20]We usually think while talking
[05:35.91]and this results in looser construction,
[05:41.03]and comment clauses
[05:42.87]such as 〝Jack is ugly, I think.〞
[05:46.53]speech also contains loudness,
[05:50.18]and other intonations and pauses
[05:52.77]that cannot be
[05:53.89]easily transmuted to the written form.
[05:57.99]and gestures often aid meaning
[06:00.13]as well as deictic expressions
[06:02.70]which refer directly to the situation.
[06:05.80]These features can all be
[06:07.29]contained in speech
[06:08.68]but are not written down
[06:10.08]with much effectiveness.
[06:12.08]Hearing and understanding
[06:14.62]can be more difficult
[06:16.15]than understanding written English
[06:17.99]for another very simple reason—
[06:20.85]written English usually does not come
[06:23.18]with an accent.
[06:24.79]The accent is different to dialect,
[06:27.32]although they often go together.
[06:29.71]English in the written form
[06:31.36]can take better advantage
[06:32.68]of dialect than of an accent.
[06:35.46]An accent will be the
[06:36.55]sound a speaker makes
[06:38.10]when using a specific set of words
[06:40.34]relating to the locality they
[06:43.37]but the words remain the same;
[06:46.57]is a pattern of language use
[06:48.24]that may substitute new words
[06:50.27]or meanings for existing words.
[06:53.07]Actually, written English
[06:54.54]is reasonably simple to master,
[06:57.15]especially if you are only going to
[06:59.46]use it in the written form.
[07:01.67]Spoken English is much harder
[07:03.31]to learn and use effectively.
[07:06.18]With so much difference
[07:07.42]between these two forms of English,
[07:10.05]it is the prime duty of everyone
[07:12.24]aspiring to become
[07:13.60]a good language learner
[07:15.51]to pay heed to both forms
[07:17.32]equally to have
[07:18.95]a good command over English.
[07:20.73]If one is able to do so,
[07:23.02]he is sure to win admiration
[07:25.11]and appreciation from his readers
[07:27.39]and listeners to a great extent.
[07:31.90]a good language learner always
[07:33.86]respects the language
[07:35.24]he intends to learn.
[07:37.43]Therefore, he takes keen interest
[07:39.33]in acquiring this language,
[07:41.62]not leaving any important aspect
[07:43.92]untouched and uncovered.
[07:46.00]Such a learner is always successful.
[07:49.01]OK, today we have discussed
[07:52.41]between spoken English
[07:53.00]and written English.
[07:54.93]To sum up,
[07:55.94]spoken English and written English
[07:57.98]differ in the aspect of medium
[08:00.25]as well as whether it
[08:01.36]is informal or formal,
[08:03.28]time-based or not,
[08:04.78]simple or hard to learn and so on.
[08:07.59]Next time, we'll continue to talk
[08:09.34]about it further.
[08:11.84]Now, you have THREE minutes
[08:13.55]to check your work.
[11:15.45]This is the end
[11:16.82]of Section A Mini-lecture.
[11:19.83]SECTION B INTERVIEW
[11:23.08]In this section
[11:24.01]you will hear ONE interview.
[11:26.23]The interview will be
[11:27.41]divided into TWO parts.
[11:29.53]At the end of each part,
[11:31.15]five questions will be
[11:32.71]asked about what was said.
[11:34.49]Both the interview
[11:35.38]and the questions
[11:36.60]will be spoken ONCE ONLY.
[11:39.13]After each question
[11:40.37]there will be
[11:40.85]a ten-second pause.
[11:42.73]During the pause,
[11:43.79]you should read
[11:44.50]the four choices
[11:45.90]of A, B, C and D,
[11:48.93]and mark the best answer
[11:50.10]to each question
[11:51.27]on ANSWER SHEET TWO.
[11:53.44]You have THIRTY seconds
[11:54.84]to preview the questions.
[12:26.92]Now, listen to Part One
[12:28.61]of the interview.
[12:29.98]Questions 1 to 5
[12:31.43]are based on
[12:32.12]Part One of the interview.
[12:34.69]M: Caitlin Friedman offers advice
[12:36.21]on being a smart woman-in-charge
[12:38.61]in her new book:
[12:39.96]The Girl's Guide to Being a Boss
[12:42.07]Without Being Unpopular.
[12:45.19]nice to have you here.
[12:47.02]W: Good morning.
[12:49.09]why is it that
[12:49.85]when women get into
[12:51.28]a position of power,
[12:52.75]when they become the boss
[12:54.03]or become leaders,
[12:55.38]they tend to be unpopular?
[12:58.63]we think there are two reasons.
[13:00.97]The first is,
[13:02.13]it's really unfair
[13:03.16]that in the workplace
[13:04.51]people expect women
[13:05.72]to be emotionally there for them.
[13:08.41]You would never take
[13:09.30]your personal problems
[13:10.71]to a male boss,
[13:12.30]but you do take them
[13:13.29]to a woman boss
[13:14.71]because women are nurturing,
[13:16.71]just because that's what women do.
[13:19.43]M: You expect them
[13:20.28]to understand the issues
[13:21.52]with your kids or whatever.
[13:24.59]and the other thing is
[13:25.92]there haven't been any positive
[13:29.51]there are very few
[13:30.35]positive women role models
[13:33.17]Especially…look at the movies,
[13:35.49]which say women
[13:36.41]are just crazy persons
[13:37.98]when they get a little power.
[13:40.10]So what we try to do in the book
[13:42.14]is to show people
[13:43.18]how to do it a little bit better.
[13:45.56]M: And we'll discuss that
[13:46.93]in a minute,
[13:48.11]but why are the roles
[13:49.63]so different for men and women
[13:51.47]when they do become the boss?
[13:54.44]I think it really has something to do
[13:56.34]with the lack of role models.
[13:59.05]when we were growing up
[14:00.27]and coming into
[14:01.11]the professional environment,
[14:03.13]we had really tough women bosses,
[14:05.71]but they had learned from men.
[14:07.72]So we think that women
[14:09.02]need to be able to manage
[14:10.46]the way they are comfortable
[14:13.82]M: What's the number one mistake
[14:15.39]women are making?
[14:17.32]W: I think the number one mistake
[14:19.70]women are making is
[14:20.82]that they're trying to do something
[14:22.43]the way that's not comfortable
[14:23.83]for the employees.
[14:26.81]you really need to be firm and fair.
[14:29.46]You need to know
[14:30.21]what your employees need from you
[14:32.25]before you just want to set out
[14:34.05]these blanket things.
[14:36.18]The other thing is
[14:37.37]that if you are emotional once
[14:39.31]in a workplace,
[14:40.67]you are the crybaby from then on,
[14:43.75]though you cried only this time
[14:45.47]in ten years.
[14:47.21]And that's what happens
[14:49.97]they get stuck with these bad raps
[14:52.30]and we think
[14:53.17]that what you need to do
[14:54.39]is really try to be as firm and fair
[14:58.66]This is the end of
[14:59.72]Part One of the interview.
[15:01.57]Questions 1 to 5 are based on
[15:03.63]what you have just heard.
[15:05.85]1. What is Caitlin's book
[15:20.04]2. What would people talk
[15:22.77]to a woman boss
[15:23.89]instead of a male boss?
[15:35.78]3. What is the second reason
[15:38.89]why women bosses are unpopular?
[15:51.23]4. What is the number one mistake
[15:54.42]women are making?
[16:05.89]5. What should a woman boss do
[16:09.45]to avoid the number one mistake?
[16:21.92]Now, listen to Part Two
[16:23.73]of the interview.
[16:25.14]Questions 6 to 10
[16:26.72]are based on
[16:27.41]Part Two of the interview.
[16:30.12]M: Is there no place for emotion
[16:32.13]in a workplace?
[16:34.57]we don't think there is.
[16:36.01]I mean we think
[16:37.11]that you can be yourself,
[16:38.54]which is kind and supportive,
[16:40.38]warm and giving,
[16:41.61]but not crying,
[16:43.27]or beating people.
[16:44.89]Traditionally in business,
[16:46.59]showing your emotions
[16:47.91]is a sign of weakness-
[16:50.01]it can also be perceived
[16:51.78]as a very female trait-
[16:53.93]don't let your guard down.
[16:56.02]Women are often guilty
[16:57.45]of letting work get under their skin-
[16:59.98]taking business personally-
[17:02.01]and reacting emotionally
[17:03.75]in front of your colleagues
[17:05.26]is never a good idea.
[17:09.17]if I were a woman boss,
[17:11.05]if I were going to get emotional,
[17:13.27]what should I do?
[17:14.85]W: That's easy.
[17:15.95]Just relax your shoulders,
[17:17.87]take a deep breath,
[17:19.25]listen to what they have to say
[17:21.26]and let your composure
[17:22.42]soften the blow.
[17:24.00]If you look physically shaken up
[17:25.83]by any conversation,
[17:27.67]it can be used against you
[17:29.66]or seen as a sign of weakness.
[17:33.38]let's talk about
[17:34.34]some more practical advice.
[17:36.55]Caitlin, what do you think
[17:38.75]is the number one rule
[17:39.85]of good leadership for a woman boss?
[17:42.74]W: Well, the number one rule
[17:44.59]of good leadership
[17:45.82]is fairness or put another way,
[17:48.55]acting free from self-interest,
[17:50.69]prejudice, or favoritism.
[17:53.76]just like good teachers,
[17:55.50]don't offer preferential treatment
[17:57.59]to any of their subordinates.
[17:59.92]As a woman,
[18:00.95]it's likely you will have more
[18:02.49]in common with
[18:03.45]your female team members,
[18:06.38]if you let this kind of partiality
[18:08.66]cloud your professional judgment,
[18:11.13]you will fail to gain the respect
[18:12.96]of your male employees.
[18:15.29]Treat everyone equally
[18:16.53]and with respect,
[18:18.23]in time it's likely
[18:19.43]they'll return the favor.
[18:22.87]And what is the proper way
[18:24.25]for women bosses
[18:25.70]to deal with criticism
[18:27.69]when the male employees
[18:28.97]fail to do their duties?
[18:31.50]W: Giving honest
[18:32.29]and constructive criticism.
[18:34.79]If you shy away
[18:36.77]your male underlings,
[18:38.52]not only are you preventing them
[18:40.23]from developing personally
[18:43.65]but you're also
[18:44.36]giving them ammunition
[18:45.61]to question your ability
[18:46.98]as a leader.
[18:48.69]This goes back to equality
[18:51.65]treat everyone equally
[18:53.24]and don't be afraid to provide
[18:54.70]criticism and direction
[18:56.32]when it's required.
[18:58.94]praise good work
[19:00.03]and reward employees
[19:01.48]when they go above
[19:02.48]and beyond the call of duty.
[19:04.98]M: Any other advice
[19:06.18]on what a woman boss
[19:07.25]should avoid doing?
[19:08.77]W: Women bosses should avoid
[19:10.20]talk of overtly "female" topics
[19:12.91]if they want to be taken seriously
[19:15.03]by their male subordinates.
[19:17.42]I'm not suggesting
[19:18.37]that you begin dropping fast cars
[19:20.46]and beer into conversation either.
[19:23.22]Instead, focus on
[19:24.68]what needs to be achieved
[19:26.42]from a business point-of-view-
[19:28.28]discuss how things can be improved,
[19:31.37]ask them for their suggestions
[19:33.48]as well as sharing your own
[19:35.99]about their career aspirations.
[19:38.82]By keeping the conversation
[19:41.59]your male team members
[19:43.17]will see you as a leader.
[19:45.61]M: OK, Caitlin,
[19:47.02]thank you very much
[19:48.26]for staying with us today.
[19:50.22]W: My pleasure.
[19:52.08]This is the end of
[19:53.51]Part Two of the interview.
[19:55.18]Questions 6 to 10 are based on
[19:57.12]what you have just heard.
[19:59.49]6. What is Caitlin's attitude
[20:02.96]towards reacting emotionally
[20:04.70]in a workplace?
[20:16.25]7. What is the number one rule
[20:19.30]of good leadership
[20:20.43]for a woman boss?
[20:32.17]8. What should a woman boss do
[20:35.33]when the male employees
[20:37.08]fail to do their duties?
[20:48.97]9. What kind of topics
[20:51.82]should a woman boss avoid?
[21:03.78]10. What should a woman boss do
[21:07.09]to make her male team members
[21:08.92]see her as a leader?