2019-01-10 10:48:55 来源：网络专四专八资料下载
[00:25.08]SECTION A MINI-LECTURE
[00:27.88]In this section
[00:29.11]you will hear a mini-lecture.
[00:31.20]You will hear
[00:31.90]the mini-lecture ONCE ONLY.
[00:34.17]While listening to the mini-lecture,
[00:36.34]please complete the gap-filling task
[00:38.48]on ANSWER SHEET ONE and write
[00:40.38]NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS
[00:42.26]for each gap.
[00:44.13]Make sure the word(s) you fill in
[00:47.17]is (are) both grammatically
[00:49.23]and semantically acceptable.
[00:52.35]You may use the blank sheet
[00:55.86]You have THIRTY seconds
[00:57.37]to preview the gap-filling task.
[01:29.60]Now listen to the mini-lecture.
[01:31.72]When it is over,
[01:33.01]you will be given THREE minutes
[01:34.50]to check your work.
[01:36.62]What Is Literary Writing?
[01:40.48]welcome to our writing class.
[01:42.75]Today we'd like to take a glimpse
[01:44.83]at literary writing.
[01:46.82]The term "literary writing"
[01:48.90]calls to mind works by writers
[01:51.13]such as Shakespeare,
[01:52.71]Milton or Wordsworth—
[01:55.10]definitive examples of all
[01:56.86]that the term implies.
[01:59.10]We instinctively associate the term
[02:02.24]such as artistic merit,
[02:06.07]and the expression
[02:07.01]of mankind's noblest qualities.
[02:09.96]In this lecture I will explore
[02:11.72]some of the characteristics
[02:13.40]of this kind of writing.
[02:16.72]are primarily distinguishable
[02:18.61]from other pieces of writing
[02:20.39]by their creative or artistic content.
[02:24.15]A piece of literature differs
[02:25.78]from specialized treatises
[02:27.96]on astronomy, political economy,
[02:30.68]philosophy, or even history,
[02:32.97]in part because it appeals,
[02:35.72]not to a particular
[02:36.74]class of readers only,
[02:38.28]but to men and women;
[02:40.28]and in part because,
[02:42.01]while the object of the treatise
[02:43.84]is simply to impart knowledge,
[02:46.32]one ideal end
[02:47.69]of the piece of literature,
[02:49.50]whether it also imparts knowledge
[02:52.64]is to yield aesthetic satisfaction
[02:55.04]by the manner in which
[02:56.49]it handles its theme.
[02:58.79]In fundamental terms literature
[03:00.64]is an expression of life
[03:02.96]through the medium of "language",
[03:05.25]but language used more profoundly
[03:07.45]than when used simply
[03:08.97]to convey information.
[03:11.47]Literature is a vital record
[03:13.10]of what people have seen in life,
[03:15.75]what they have experienced of it,
[03:17.89]and what they have thought
[03:19.13]and felt about those aspects of it
[03:21.93]which have the most immediate
[03:23.30]and enduring interest for all of us.
[03:26.36]So literary writing,
[03:27.97]having creative and artistic content,
[03:30.81]is more carefully structured
[03:32.88]and uses words
[03:34.03]for the rhetorical effect
[03:35.44]of their flow,
[03:36.64]their sound, and their emotive
[03:38.61]and descriptive qualities.
[03:40.54]Literary writers can also employ tone,
[03:43.60]rhyme, rhythm, irony, dialogue
[03:47.11]and its variations
[03:48.53]such as dialects and slang,
[03:51.39]and a host of other devices
[03:53.00]in the construction
[03:53.86]of a particular prose work,
[03:55.73]poem or play.
[03:58.06]Literary writing is,
[03:59.43]in essence, a "response",
[04:01.56]a subjective personal view
[04:03.79]which the writer expresses
[04:05.21]through his themes,
[04:06.43]ideas, thoughts, reminiscences,
[04:09.54]using his collection of words
[04:11.41]to try to evoke a response
[04:13.56]in his reader.
[04:15.25]It is not only a question
[04:16.71]of the artist looking into himself
[04:19.27]but also a question
[04:20.93]of his looking into others
[04:22.66]with the experience
[04:24.00]he has of himself.
[04:26.75]He writes with sympathy
[04:28.03]because he feels
[04:29.44]that the other man is like him.
[04:33.16]a process of communication;
[04:35.32]it "helps us to understand life".
[04:38.77]Perhaps we should also consider
[04:40.56]the motivation of the writer
[04:42.44]as a factor
[04:43.47]which distinguishes literature
[04:45.17]from other forms of writing.
[04:47.78]The writer's motivation is the energy
[04:50.11]that pulls together
[04:51.35]the strands of his creativity
[04:53.99]in the shaping of the finished work.
[04:57.80]is an essential characteristic
[05:00.12]of literary writing.
[05:02.25]It is the engine behind creativity.
[05:05.41]Some of the great themes,
[05:07.00]which occur again and again,
[05:09.38]not only in literary writing,
[05:11.52]but in all the arts:
[05:13.12]love, death, war, and peace,
[05:15.88]seem to provide
[05:17.14]permanent inspiration for artists.
[05:20.40]So perhaps an inventory
[05:22.24]of literary writers' motives
[05:25.14]the overflowing of their passions,
[05:27.69]their desire for self-expression,
[05:30.15]an abiding fascination with humanity
[05:32.83]in all its variety,
[05:34.88]the need to come
[05:35.64]to grips with relationships
[05:37.35]as they really are in the world
[05:39.80]as it really is,
[05:41.88]the striving after an ideal world
[05:44.30]which can exist only
[05:45.76]in the imagination,
[05:47.52]and, perhaps at the heart of it all,
[05:50.34]the need to form,
[05:51.59]shape things of beauty.
[05:54.13]The artist needs to resolve conflicts
[05:58.31]to reach an understanding,
[06:00.11]to search for
[06:01.04]some credible meaning of life,
[06:02.86]death, and everything.
[06:05.02]He is always reaching
[06:06.28]toward some sort of truth;
[06:08.68]an artistic creative truth,
[06:10.97]a truth that resides
[06:12.06]in the individual artist
[06:13.54]and needs to be grasped,
[06:17.36]and made understandable.
[06:19.76]Perhaps in some cases
[06:21.61]the artist's motivation could be seen
[06:23.60]as a need to create other worlds,
[06:26.69]in order that they can project
[06:27.97]real conflicts onto another plane.
[06:32.20]The many different genres of the novel
[06:34.39]constitute a particular challenge
[06:36.50]to the concept of "literary writing".
[06:40.58]and science fiction novels,
[06:42.27]for example, are creative,
[06:44.43]imaginative depictions of life.
[06:47.35]We might question
[06:48.24]their seriousness as literature,
[06:50.54]or whether they can achieve
[06:52.36]the high ideals of art,
[06:54.70]but then we might equally well question
[06:56.64]the meaning of "seriousness"
[06:59.03]and "the high ideals of art".
[07:01.72]Popular novels may not
[07:03.13]deal with life's great conflicts,
[07:05.63]or search for truth and beauty,
[07:07.92]and they may deal with
[07:09.48]the dark side of life,
[07:11.30]or escape into the fantastic,
[07:13.58]but can they still be considered
[07:17.32]Do they still make
[07:18.16]an important contribution
[07:19.50]to our understanding of the world
[07:21.50]as "real" literature does?
[07:24.34]Obviously "literary" works
[07:26.40]take an event, an aspect of life
[07:29.44]as a nucleus and construct a world
[07:31.61]around that core.
[07:33.76]They are works about real people,
[07:35.82]engaged in the real business
[07:38.73]They convey knowledge,
[07:40.07]Understanding and experience,
[07:42.81]and are hence considered important.
[07:45.51]Yet they have in common
[07:46.71]with the detective
[07:47.72]and science fiction novels
[07:49.71]that they are books,
[07:51.30]consisting of words
[07:52.92]that have been used
[07:53.80]to express something,
[07:55.14]words that may or may not be read,
[07:58.51]and may or may not succeed
[08:00.36]in conveying an understanding
[08:02.04]of the world they depict.
[08:04.55]In my view,
[08:05.44]it comes down
[08:06.24]to subjective value judgments.
[08:09.03]I believe literature is a "broad church"
[08:12.24]which ought to be able
[08:13.40]to deal with any subject,
[08:15.69]and that ultimately
[08:16.78]it is individual reader,
[08:18.90]or readers all together,
[08:21.07]who decide on the value
[08:22.66]of any particular work
[08:24.59]and on whether or not
[08:26.08]it deserves a place
[08:27.22]in the annals of literature.
[08:29.99]Writers aim to show us "the world",
[08:32.89]but no single writer can do this,
[08:35.09]and "literature" should encompass
[08:37.48]numerous different kinds of writers
[08:39.78]because each is trying
[08:41.66]to show us something
[08:42.94]which cannot be shown as a whole.
[08:46.41]Each can only give us
[08:47.44]his own small fragment
[08:51.18]Ultimately it is those works
[08:53.33]which endure that should be considered
[08:57.27]those which have succeeded
[08:58.76]in holding firm a fragment of life,
[09:01.87]to be seen,
[09:02.89]to be read,
[09:03.72]to be understood.
[09:06.13]Perhaps we should let a writer
[09:07.86]have the last word on summing up
[09:09.66]the writers' art:
[09:11.44]The aim of every artist
[09:13.03]is to arrest motion,
[09:15.34]which is life,
[09:16.71]by artificial means and hold it fixed,
[09:19.96]so that a hundred years later,
[09:22.04]when a stranger looks at it,
[09:23.92]it moves again since it is life.
[09:27.25]Since man is mortal,
[09:29.32]the only immortality possible for him
[09:32.21]is to leave something behind him
[09:34.31]that is immortal
[09:36.00]since it will always move.
[09:39.26]OK, in conclusion,
[09:41.16]today we have discussed
[09:42.72]some distinguishable characteristics
[09:44.85]of literary writing.
[09:46.96]Literary writing is a self-conscious,
[09:49.10]imaginative mode of writing
[09:51.37]which uses words
[09:52.94]not just to convey information,
[09:55.13]but as an art form.
[09:57.65]Ultimately it is a response to life.
[10:01.62]This is the end of the lecture.
[10:03.62]Thank you very much!
[10:06.20]Now, you have THREE minutes
[10:07.95]to check your work.
[13:07.43]This is the end of
[13:08.67]Section A Mini-lecture.
[13:11.47]SECTION B INTERVIEW
[13:13.82]In this section
[13:14.92]you will hear ONE interview.
[13:17.03]The interview will be
[13:18.17]divided into TWO parts.
[13:20.21]At the end of each part,
[13:21.78]five questions will be
[13:22.99]asked about what was said.
[13:25.57]Both the interview
[13:26.45]and the questions
[13:27.74]will be spoken ONCE ONLY.
[13:30.33]After each question
[13:32.01]there will be
[13:32.65]a ten-second pause.
[13:34.66]During the pause,
[13:35.78]you should read
[13:36.89]the four choices
[13:38.11]of A, B, C and D,
[13:40.57]and mark the best answer
[13:41.97]to each question
[13:43.42]on ANSWER SHEET TWO.
[13:45.76]You have THIRTY seconds
[13:47.12]to preview the questions.
[14:19.26]Now, listen to Part One
[14:20.61]of the interview.
[14:22.28]Questions 1 to 5
[14:23.65]are based on
[14:24.66]Part One of the interview.
[14:27.87]W: Good morning, everybody.
[14:29.29]Today, we are pleased
[14:30.37]to have invited Mikey Rox,
[14:32.76]an award-winning journalist
[14:34.28]and personal finance expert
[14:36.29]to give us some suggestions
[14:37.82]on the do's and don'ts
[14:39.46]of lending money to family.
[14:42.60]M: Thank you.
[14:43.44]I'm very happy to meet you all.
[14:45.69]W: Mikey, we know
[14:47.13]that loaning money to family
[14:48.59]is one of life's greatest dilemmas.
[14:51.33]On the one hand,
[14:52.51]we want to help somebody
[14:53.66]we care for
[14:54.72]when they're in a financial bind.
[14:56.69]On the other hand,
[14:57.81]we know it probably won't go off
[14:59.45]without a hitch.
[15:00.68]So, how do I know
[15:02.09]when I should and shouldn't help?
[15:04.70]M: Well, first,
[15:05.56]you should carefully consider
[15:06.68]who you're helping.
[15:08.65]W: Then what kind of person
[15:09.74]should I help?
[15:11.31]M: If it's your brother
[15:12.31]who's in need of a quick loan,
[15:13.91]and you know he'll pay you back
[15:15.37]on time with interest,
[15:17.06]your decision to lend money
[15:18.38]is a no-brainer.
[15:19.84]But if it's your deadbeat cousin Steven
[15:22.75]who has never had two nickels
[15:24.37]to rub together,
[15:25.68]but always somehow
[15:26.78]has a pocketful of cash
[15:27.94]to buy rounds of shots
[15:29.21]for his lady friends at the bar
[15:31.09]because he wants to look like a baller,
[15:33.33]you should probably sleep on it.
[15:35.36]W: Which means…
[15:36.89]M: When there's not
[15:37.47]a snowball's chance in hell
[15:39.16]that you'll see your money again,
[15:41.04]resolve to help
[15:41.90]without the expectation
[15:43.28]of being paid back,
[15:44.81]or just say no.
[15:46.52]W: But is it OK to say no
[15:48.09]to the family members
[15:49.40]who ask for help?
[15:51.09]M: Don't be afraid to say no.
[15:53.10]This is the second advice.
[15:54.72]Because you're under no obligation
[15:56.12]to give anyone—
[15:57.39]besides the government
[15:58.33]and your own creditors,
[16:00.85]a dime of your hard-earned money.
[16:03.02]If you don't feel comfortable
[16:04.38]lending money to a family member,
[16:06.31]just say no.
[16:07.50]They'll get over it.
[16:08.60]Or they won't,
[16:09.82]and you'll be better off for it.
[16:11.62]But if you have
[16:12.53]the disposable income
[16:13.58]to offer a loan
[16:14.60]without feeling the pinch,
[16:17.69]W: What if the person
[16:18.45]really deserves my help,
[16:20.26]but I cannot afford it
[16:21.29]from my own disposable income?
[16:23.76]Should I dip into my own savings?
[16:26.08]M: No, I'm afraid.
[16:27.56]You should only lend
[16:28.47]what you can afford
[16:30.57]your own financial situation.
[16:33.04]Your savings are just that—
[16:34.83]savings for emergencies,
[16:36.89]a new investment,
[16:38.93]whatever you want.
[16:40.94]that you've worked hard to build up,
[16:43.44]and you shouldn't let anyone
[16:44.66]take away from that.
[16:46.29]The best thing you could do
[16:47.59]is to politely explain the situation,
[16:49.55]and close the case.
[16:51.87]W: What about co-signing for loans?
[16:54.68]Never co-sign for a loan.
[16:56.80]Lending cash is one thing,
[16:58.58]but co-signing for loans
[17:00.04]is a whole other ball game,
[17:01.77]and you absolutely don't want
[17:03.44]any part of it.
[17:05.03]It is almost guaranteed
[17:06.37]to be a disaster.
[17:07.95]If that discussion is on the table,
[17:09.77]swiftly shut it down.
[17:11.66]You're not the person for the job.
[17:14.25]This is the end of
[17:15.40]Part One of the interview.
[17:17.69]Questions 1 to 5 are based on
[17:19.86]what you have just heard.
[17:22.30]1. What is the topic of the interview?
[17:35.46]2. According to Mikey,
[17:38.12]what kind of person
[17:39.02]can you lend money to?
[17:50.81]3. According to Mikey,
[17:53.34]what should you do
[17:54.21]when there is no chance
[17:55.55]you will get your money back?
[18:06.99]4. According to Mikey,
[18:09.51]what is the best thing you could do
[18:11.27]if you cannot afford the money?
[18:22.83]5. According to Mikey,
[18:25.61]what should NOT be done
[18:26.95]when lending money to someone?
[18:38.58]Now, listen to Part Two
[18:39.90]of the interview.
[18:41.65]Questions 6 to 10
[18:43.13]are based on
[18:44.02]Part Two of the interview.
[18:46.89]W: What should be noted
[18:47.84]if I can afford the loan,
[18:49.37]and plan to help my family?
[18:51.35]M: Getting the details.
[18:52.50]You should know
[18:53.29]what will this loan be paying for,
[18:55.42]how will it affect
[18:56.39]your borrower's financial state,
[18:58.53]and what will be
[18:59.25]the terms of repayment.
[19:01.29]Part of the reason family loans
[19:02.82]are rarely paid back
[19:04.41]is that they are not discussed enough
[19:07.39]This is your money.
[19:08.56]You have the right to know
[19:09.57]where it's going,
[19:11.01]what it will do,
[19:12.16]and how it will be repaid.
[19:14.30]W: If I'm lending
[19:14.92]a relatively large sum of money,
[19:17.36]is it necessary to draw up
[19:18.75]a written contract?
[19:20.15]M: Of course.
[19:21.20]Lending money is a business deal,
[19:23.13]not a friendly transaction.
[19:25.21]And when you treat it
[19:26.08]like the former,
[19:26.98]the experience is likelier
[19:28.17]to go much smoother
[19:29.56]than when it's positioned
[19:30.68]as the latter.
[19:32.16]When you draw up a written contract,
[19:33.98]establish repayment terms—
[19:37.23](doesn't have to be bank-rate interest,
[19:39.51]but at least something minimal
[19:40.92]to provide motivation to pay on time)—
[19:43.43]and have both parties sign.
[19:45.32]Each of you should keep a copy,
[19:46.75]and post it on the fridge,
[19:48.41]as a reminder of
[19:49.19]what one of you is owed
[19:50.69]and what the other owes.
[19:52.68]W: You know
[19:53.25]that lending money to family
[19:54.53]doesn't always go as planned,
[19:56.67]what should we do
[19:57.47]to prevent that situation?
[19:59.97]M: To have Plan B.
[20:01.69]W: What is Plan B?
[20:03.42]M: Discuss the worst-case scenario
[20:04.49]and put a conflict resolution plan
[20:06.60]in place that you both agree on.
[20:09.43]Things can get awkward
[20:10.51]when it comes to money,
[20:11.66]so planning out
[20:12.49]how you will handle a conflict
[20:13.90]if one does happen
[20:15.31]when you are cool-headed
[20:16.26]versus acting on hot-headed emotion
[20:19.16]will protect your relationship
[20:20.51]in the future.
[20:21.76]W: Are there any other do's and don'ts
[20:24.15]of lending money to family?
[20:26.30]there are two more tips
[20:27.47]that I want to remind you of.
[20:29.66]The first is,
[20:31.01]avoiding giving in to emotional bullying.
[20:33.96]People who need money
[20:35.21]will sometimes pull out all the stops
[20:37.57]when trying to convince you
[20:38.82]to subsidize their life.
[20:41.99]Don't let those sad excuses
[20:43.50]and crocodile tears drag you down,
[20:46.09]especially when the dramatics
[20:47.50]are from someone you know better
[20:48.95]than to trust with a loan.
[20:50.81]W: And the second?
[20:52.02]M: Don't expect favor in return.
[20:54.03]If you want to pay the person
[20:55.33]in need of money
[20:56.05]for completing tasks
[20:57.15]around the house or office,
[20:58.65]that's quite acceptable.
[21:00.02]There's no harm
[21:00.72]in earning the cash you need.
[21:02.72]But if that's not part
[21:03.73]of the original deal,
[21:04.97]don't expect the borrower
[21:06.13]to go out of their way
[21:07.29]to help you with anything.
[21:09.41]it's the decent thing to do—
[21:10.71]helping someone in other ways
[21:12.17]when they lend you money—
[21:13.44]but not everyone thinks that way,
[21:15.38]and it's not fair
[21:16.04]to place those expectations
[21:17.21]on unsuspecting people.
[21:19.60]W: Well, Mikey,
[21:20.49]thank you for staying with us today.
[21:22.44]M: My pleasure.
[21:24.21]This is the end of
[21:25.82]Part Two of the interview.
[21:27.49]Questions 6 to 10 are based on
[21:29.84]what you have just heard.
[21:32.24]6. Which of the following is NOT
[21:35.09]what you should know
[21:36.21]before lending money to your family?
[21:48.20]7. What will make it much smoother
[21:51.32]when lending money to family?
[22:03.06]8. According to Mikey,
[22:05.56]what is Plan B?
[22:16.88]9. According to Mikey,
[22:19.74]what kind of people
[22:20.67]should you avoid lending money to?
[22:32.89]10. What does Mikey think
[22:35.60]of expecting favor in return?