再和大家强调一下：2019英语专四听力理解Section A: Talk本部分由一个500个单词的微型讲座(mini-lecture)和一项填空任务组成。要求学生边听边做笔记，然后完成填空任务。考试时间10分钟。本部分共10道填空题。
[00:01.44]SECTION A TALK
[00:03.99]In this section you will hear a talk.
[00:07.09]You will hear the talk ONCE ONLY.
[00:11.55]you may look at ANSWER SHEET ONE
[00:13.80]and write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each gap.
[00:18.35]Make sure the word(s) you fill in
[00:21.72]is (are) both grammatically and semantically acceptable.
[00:27.07]You may use the blank sheet for note-taking.
[00:30.92]You have THIRTY seconds to preview the gap-filling task.
[01:06.49]Now listen to the talk.
[01:08.34]When it is over, you will be given
[01:10.58]TWO minutes to complete your work.
[01:17.35]An apology is an expression of remorse for something
[01:20.42]you've done wrong, and serves as a way
[01:22.46]to repair a relationship after that wrongdoing.
[01:26.01]Forgiveness occurs when the person
[01:27.91]who was hurt is motivated to repair the relationship
[01:31.16]with the person who inflicted the hurt.
[01:33.56]An effective apology will communicate three things:
[01:37.51]regret, responsibility, and communication.
[01:41.16]Apologizing for a mistake might seem difficult,
[01:44.31]but it will help you repair
[01:46.01]and improve your relationships with others.
[01:48.96]First of all, you need to demonstrate your regret.
[01:52.27]Admit that you have realized that you were wrong
[01:54.68]and you are now regretful.
[01:56.68]Remember: always avoid justifying your actions.
[02:00.24]It's natural to want to justify your actions
[02:02.82]when explaining them to another person.
[02:05.21]However, presenting justifications
[02:07.40]will often obscure the meaning of an apology,
[02:10.46]because the other person
[02:12.01]may perceive the apology as insincere.
[02:15.16]Justifications may include claims that the person
[02:18.56]you hurt misunderstood you,
[02:20.41]such as "you took it the wrong way."
[02:23.01]They may also include denial of injury,
[02:25.68]such as "it wasn't really that bad."
[02:28.53]Next, accept responsibility.
[02:31.43]Be as specific as possible when you accept responsibility.
[02:35.53]Specific apologies are more likely
[02:37.97]to be meaningful to the other person,
[02:40.27]because they show that you have paid attention
[02:42.72]to the situation that hurt him.
[02:45.46]Try to avoid overgeneralizing.
[02:48.86]Saying something like "I'm a terrible person" is not true,
[02:52.93]and it isn't attentive to the specific behavior
[02:55.58]or situation that caused the hurt.
[02:58.58]Overgeneralizing makes addressing
[03:00.83]the issue seem impossible;
[03:02.83]you can't fix being a "terrible person"
[03:05.73]as easily as you can fix "not paying attention
[03:08.73]to someone else's needs."
[03:10.57]For example, continue the apology by stating what,
[03:14.37]specifically, caused the hurt.
[03:16.42]"I deeply regret hurting your feelings yesterday.
[03:19.77]I feel terrible about causing you pain.
[03:22.49]I should never have snapped at you for picking me up late."
[03:25.86]Third, communication matters most.
[03:29.38]Listen to the other person.
[03:31.13]The other person may want to express their feelings to you.
[03:34.98]She may still be upset.
[03:37.28]She may have more questions for you.
[03:39.48]Do your best to stay calm and open.
[03:42.53]If the other person is still upset with you,
[03:45.18]she/he may react in an unfavorable way.
[03:48.93]If the person yells or insults you,
[03:51.28]these negative feelings
[03:52.90]may prevent forgiveness from occurring.
[03:55.36]Either take a timeout or try to redirect the conversation
[03:59.26]to a more productive topic.
[04:01.36]To take a timeout,
[04:03.11]express your empathy for the other person
[04:05.31]and offer them the choice.
[04:07.47]Try to avoid seeming like you're blaming the other person.
[04:10.82]For example, "I clearly hurt you,
[04:13.67]and it seems like you're upset right now.
[04:16.09]Would it be helpful to take a brief timeout?
[04:18.45]I want to understand where you are coming from,
[04:21.25]but I want you to feel comfortable."
[04:23.67]To redirect the conversation from negativity,
[04:26.78]try to learn specific behaviors
[04:28.96]that the other person wishes you had done
[04:31.36]instead of what you actually did.
[04:33.66]For example, if the other person says something like
[04:36.82]"You just never respect me!"
[04:39.32]you could respond by asking
[04:41.62]"What would help you feel that respect in the future?"
[04:44.45]or "What do you hope I would do differently next time?"
[04:48.70]Apologizing is never easy, for both parties;
[04:52.40]thus, try to make it as comfortable
[04:54.85]and effective as possible. Good luck!
[04:58.30]Now you have two minutes to complete your work.
[07:03.85]This is the end of Section A TALK.