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2020专八阅读备考练习及答案讲解(6)

2019-08-23 10:29:48来源:网络

  以下是新东方在线为大家整理的2020专八阅读备考练习及答案讲解(6),希望能够帮助大家更有效的备考专八考试,更多专八备考内容,欢迎随时关注新东方在线专四专八网。

  The search for latent prints is done in a systematic and intelligent manner. Investigators develop techniques to locate traces of fingerprints at a crime scene. The basic premise in searching for latent prints is to examine more carefully those areas, which would most likely be touched by persons who have been on the scene. The natural manner in which a person would use and place his hands in making an entrance or exit from a building or in handling any object is the key to the discovery of latent prints.

  Where a forced entrance has been made, latent prints are likely to be found on any surface adjacent to or at that point. Any object with a smooth, non-porous surface is likely to retain latent prints if touched. Fingerprints on rough surfaces are usually of little value. If the fingermark does not disclose ridge detail when viewed under a reading glass, the chances are that its value in identification is nil when photographed. Where fingermarks are found, it will be necessary for the investigator to compare them against the ones of persons having legitimate access to the premises so that the traces might be eliminated as having evidentiary value if they prove to be from these persons. Places to search for prints on an automobile are the rear view mirror, steering wheel hub, steering column, windshield dashboard and the like.

  Dusting of surface may be done with a fine brush or with an atomizer. The whit powders used are basically finely powdered white lead, talc, or chalk. Another light powder is basically Chemist’s gray. A good black powder is composed of lampblack, graphite, and powdered acacia. Dragon’s blood is good powder for white surface and can be fixed on paper by heating. In developing latent prints, the accepted method is to use the powder sparingly and brush lightly. Do not use powder if the fingermark is visible under oblique lighting. It can be photographed. A good policy for the novice is to experiment with his own prints on a surface similar to the one he wishes to search in order to determine the powder best suited to the surface. Fingerprints after dusting may be lifted by using fresh cellulose tape or commercially prepared material especially designed to lift and transfer dusted latent fingerprints.

  In addition to latent prints, the investigator must not overlook the possibility of two other types of fingerprint traces: molded impression and visible impression. Molded impressions are formed by the pressure of the finger upon comparatively soft, pliable, or plastic surfaces producing an actual mold of the fingerprint pattern. These can be recorded by photograph without treating the surface, is usually most effective in revealing the impressions clearly. Visible impressions are formed when the finger is covered with some substance which is transferred to the surface contacted. Fingers smeared with blood, grease, dirt, paint, and the like will leave a visible impression. If these impressions are clear and sharp, they are photographed under light without ant treatment. Ordinarily, prints of this type are blurred or smeared and do not contain enough detail for identification by comparison. However, they can not be overlooked or brushed aside without first being examined carefully.

  1. What is the best title for this passage?

  [A]. Visible impressions. [B]. Moulded impressions.

  [C]. Fingerprints. [D]. Latent fingerprints.

  2. How many fingermarks are mentioned in this passage?

  [A]. 2. [B]. 3. [C]. 4. [D]. 5.

  3. Which type of fingerprints is most likely to retain?

  [A]. Latent fingerprints. [B]. Visible impressions.

  [C]. Moulded impressions. [D]. Clear fingerprints.

  4. How many ways are there to develop fingerprints?

  [A]. 2. [B]. 3. [C]. 4. [D]. 5.

  答案祥解

  1. C. 指印,不管哪一种。

  A. 可见压痕。 B. 模性压痕。 C. 潜指印,都属于指印。所以最佳的标题应是指印。

  2. B. 三种指印,即:潜指印,模性和可见压痕。

  3. A. 潜指印。因为潜指印隐秘,又是作案人无意中留下不易为人发现和破坏。其价值性从文中第三段描写取潜指印可见一般。

  B. 和C. 见第四段“一定不要忽略其它两种类型的指印痕:模性压痕和可见压痕的可能性”这说明这两种指印较少,特别是模性压痕是在相当柔软,柔韧或者塑性表面留下的,作案人一般都是小心翼翼的,不留下指印,更不太可能在这类东西上压上一个指痕。至于可见压痕,是手上沾了“血,油脂,脏土,油漆之类物品”留下。“一般来说,这种类型的指印都是模糊不清或者是污脏难分,比较之下它们对鉴定来说,没有足够细节证据。” D. 清楚指印,没有这个专门名称。

  4. A. 两种。第三段第四句起“在显影指印时,公认的方法是用少许粉末,轻轻拂扫。如果指印在昏暗的灯光下可见,就可以摄影”,“指印轻扫后就用指纹胶带或商业专备材料把它们取下。这是一种专门设计用于取下和转移轻拂扫后的指印材料。”

  Vocabulary

  1. latent print 潜在指纹

  2. premise 前提

  3. non-porous 无孔的,不渗透的

  4. ridge 脊,隆起部

  5. nil 无,零

  6. premise 房屋及其附属部件

  7. rear view mirror 后视镜

  8. steering wheel hub 驾驶盘

  9. steering column 转向柱

  10. windshield 挡风玻璃

  11. dashboard 仪表盘,挡泥板

  12. atomizer 喷雾器

  13. talc 滑石

  14. lampblack 灯黑,灯烟

  15. acacia 阿拉伯树胶,金合欢胶

  16. dragons blood 龙血树脂,麒麟血

  17. sparingly 少量的,节约的

  18. novice 新手,初学者

  19. cellulose tape 纤维带,指纹胶带

  20. lift 提起,拿起。这里指取下指纹。

  21. molded impression 模性压痕

  22. visible impression 可见压痕

  23. pliable 柔韧的,柔顺的

  24. smear 搽上,涂污,弄得模糊不清

  难句译注

  1. The basic premise in searching for latent prints is to examine more carefully those areas, which would most likely be touched by persons who have been on the scene.

  [结构简析] 句子长是因为有两个定语从句:which 和who; which 修饰areas; who 修饰persons.

  [参考译文] 搜寻潜手印的基本前提是:要非常仔细的检查那些最可能为曾到过现场的人所触摸的地方。

  2. If the fingermark does not disclose ridge detail when viewed under a reading glass, the chances are that its value in identification is nil when photographed.

  [结构简析] 条件句,主从句中都有一个when +过去分词句型。第一个直接紧跟从句,第二个在主句的表语后面。译时根据其所在位置。

  [参考译文] 假如指印在放大镜下观察时没有显露隆起部分的细节(不显露指纹纹理),那很可能,在摄影时其鉴别价值等于零。

  3. Where fingermarks are found, it will be necessary for the investigator to compare them against the ones of persons having legitimate access to the premises so that the traces might be eliminated as having evidentiary value if they prove to be from these persons.

  [结构简析] 复合句,前面是主从句, where…it will be necessary, 从句so that 中又有一个条件句,if they …。

  [参考译文] 如果发现了指印,检查人员就必须把发现的指印和有权进入房屋的人的指印作比较。如果指印证实是来自这些人的,那么作为证据价值的线索就可排除掉。

  4. A good black powder is composed of lampblack, graphite, and powdered acacia. Dragon’s blood is good powder for white surface and can be fixed on paper by heating. In developing latent prints, the accepted method is to use the powder sparingly and brush lightly. Do not use powder if the fingermark is visible under oblique lighting. It can be photographed. A good policy for the novice is to experiment with his own prints on a surface similar to the one he wishes to search in order to determine the powder best suited to the surface.

  [结构简析] 句子长,因为表语中有形容词短语similar to , 而to 的宾语又有一个省略which的定从he wishes to search.. 此外副词短语in order to … 的宾语也有一个修饰的分词短语best suited.

  [参考译文] 对新手来说,最好的办法就是用自己在类似于他想要搜索的表面上的指印作一个实验,以确定最适用于这种表面的粉末。



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