2020英语专四阅读练习100篇附答案:认知与学习

2020-08-27 07:29:00来源:网络

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  o say that the child learns by imitation and thatthe way to teach is to set a good exampleoversimplifies.No child imitates every action he sees. Sometimes, the example the parent wants him tofollow is ignored while he takes over contrarypatterns from some other example. Therefore wemust tum to a more subtle theory than "Monkey see. monkey do".

  Look at it from the child's point of view.Here he is in a new situation,lacking a ready response. He is seeking a response which will gain certain ends.If he lacks a ready response for thesituation, and cannot reason out what to do.he observes a model who seems able to get theright result. The child looks for an authority or expert who can show what to do.

  There is a second element at work in this situation. The child may be able to attain hisimmediate goal only io find that his method brings criticism from people who observe him. When shouting across the house achieves his immediate end of delivering a message. be istold emphatically that such a racket (叫嚷) is unpleasant, that he should walk into the nextroom and say his say quietly. Thus. the desire to solve any objective situation is overlaid withthe desire to solve it properly. One of the early things the child leamsis that he gets moreaffection and approval when his parents like his response. Then other adults award someactions and criticize others. If one is to maintain the support of others and his own self-respect, he must adopt responses his social group approves.

  In finding trial responses. the learner does not choose models at random. He imitates theperson who seemsa good person to be like. rather than a person whose social status hewished to avoid. If the pupil wants to be good violinist, he will observe and try to copy thetechniques of capable players;while some other person may most influence his approach tobooks.

  Admiration of one quality often leads us to admire a person as a whole. and he becomes anidentifying figure. We use some people as models over a wide range of situations. imitatingmuch that they do. We leam that they are dependable and rewarding models becauseimitating them leads to success.

  1. By the last sentence of the first paragraph, the author_______________.

  A) compares children’s behaviors to monkeys'

  B) tells us that children do not learn by imitation

  C) thinks it is partial co regard imitation as"Monkey see, monkey do"

  D) means that children should not learn by imitating their parents

  2. The first element at work when a child learns by imitation is__________________.

  A) the need to find a way to attain the desired goal

  B) the desire to be acknowledged by his social group

  C) the desire to find an expert and authority

  D) the need to find a way to avoid criticism

  3. According to the third paragraph, besides achieving his goals. a child should alsoleam to_____.

  A) attain his desired results as soon as possible

  B) show his love for his parents and friends

  C) talk in a low voice

  D) behave properly

  4. It can be inferred that children usually imitate people______________.

  A) who do not scold them

  B) who they want to be like

  C) who have a high social status

  D) who give them many rewards

  5. The last two paragraphs are mainly about_________________.

  A) how children leam by imitation

  B) the motive of children’s imitation

  C) how children choose models

  D) how imitation influence children’s growth

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