2006年英语专八听力原文文本

2021-04-28 16:23:00来源:网络

  新东方在线专四专八频道给大家整理的2006年英语专八听力原文文本,希望能够对大家的专四专八考试备考有所帮助,更多有关专四专八的备考内容,欢迎随时关注新东方在线专四专八频道。

  Good morning, in today’s lecture, we shall discuss what meaning is in literary works. When we read novels. Poems, etc. , we invariably ask ourselves a question. That is, what does the writer mean here? In other words, we are interested in finding out the meaning. But meaning is a difficult issue in literature, how do we know what a work of literature is supposed to mean or what its real meaning is? I would like to discuss three ways to explain what meaning is.

  NO. 1 : Meaning is what is intended by the author. NO.2: Meaning is created by and contained in the text itself. And No. 3: Meaning is created by the reader.

  Now , let’s take a look at the first approach. That is, meaning is what is intended by the author. Does a work of literature mean what the author intended it to mean? And if so, how can we tell? If all the evidence we have is the text itself and nothing else, we can only guess what ideas the author had according to our understanding of literature and the world. In order to have a better idea of what one particular author means in one of his words, I suggest that you do the following. First, go to the library and read other works by the same author. Second, get to know something about what sort of meanings seem to be common in literary works in that particular tradition and at that time. In other words, we need to find out what the literary tends were in those days. And last, get to know what were the cultural values and symbols of the time. I guess you can understand the author’s meaning much more clearly after you do the related background research.

  Now, let’s move on to the second approach to meaning. That is, meaning is created by and contained in the text itself. Does the meaning exist in the text? Some scholars arguer that the formal properties of the text like grammar, diction, uses of image, and so on, and so forth contained and produced the meaning so that any educated or competent reader will inevitably come to more or less the same interpretation as any other. As far as I am concerned, the meaning is not only to be found literary traditions and grammatical conventions of meaning, but also in the cultural codes which have been handed down from generation to generation. So when we and other readers , including the author as well, are set to come up with similar interpretations, that kind of agreement could be created by common traditions and conventions of usage , practice, and interpretation. In other words, we have some kind of shared basis for the same interpretation . but that does not mean that readers agree on the meaning all the time. In different time periods, with different cultural perspectives, including class, belief, and world view, readers- I mean competent readers- can arrive at different interpretation of text. So meaning in the text is determined by how readers see it. It is not contained in the text in a fixed way.

  Now, the third approach to meaning, that is created by the reader. Does the meaning then exist in the reader’s response? In a sense, this is inescapable. Meaning exists only in so far as it means to someone. And literary works are written in order to evoke sets of responses in the reader. This leads us to consider three essential issues. The first is, meaning is social. That is , language and conventions work only as shared meaning, and our way of viewing the world can exist only as shared or sharable. Similarly, when we read a text, we are participating in social or cultural meaning. So response to a piece of literary work is not merely an individual thing, but is part of the culture and history. Second. Meaning is contextual. If you change the context, you often change the meaning. And last, meaning requires reader competency. Texts constructed as literature have their own ways of expressions or sometimes we say, styles and the more we know of them, the more we can understand the text. Consequently, there is , in regard to the question of meaning, the matter of reader competency as it is called the experience and knowledge of comprehending literary texts. Your professors might insist that you practice and improve competency in reading, and they might also insist that you interpret meaning in the context of the whole work. But you may have to learn other competencies too. For instance, in reading Malik Rogenan’s The Untouchable. You might have to learn what the social structure of what India was like at that time. What traditions of writing were in practice in India in the early 1930’s. hat political , cultural and personal influences Malik Rogenan came under when construction the imaginative world of the short novel.

  Okey, you may see that this idea, that meaning requires competency in reading, in fact, brings us back to the historically situated understandings of and authors and his work. As we mentioned earlier in this lecture, to different conventions and ways of reading and writing and to the point that meaning requires a negotiation between cultural meanings across time. Culture, class, etc. As readers, you have in fact acquired a good deal of competency already, but you should acquire more. The essential point of this lecture is that meaning in literature is a phenomenon that is not easily located, that meaning is historical, social and derived form the traditions of reading and thinking, and understanding of the world that you are educated about.

  Thank you for your attention.

  以上就是新东方在线专四专八频道给大家整理的2006年英语专八听力原文文本,希望对大家有所帮助,更多备考内容,欢迎随时关注新东方在线专四专八频道。



【推荐】2021英语专业八级寒假冲刺集训营

寒假全力冲刺,全程直播刷题!

本文关键字: 专八听力 专八

2020专四专八复习备考必备资料

关注新东方在线服务号回复【专四/专八词汇】

更多资料
更多>>
  • 2022年英语专业八级备考指南4b

      新东方在线专四专八频道给大家整理的2022年英语专业八级备考指南4b,希望能够对大家的专四专八考试备考有所帮助,更多有关专四专八的备

    来源 : 网络 2021-04-20 07:14:51 关键字 : 专八听力 专八

  • 2022年英语专业八级备考指南4a

      新东方在线专四专八频道给大家整理的2022年英语专业八级备考指南4a,希望能够对大家的专四专八考试备考有所帮助,更多有关专四专八的备

    来源 : 网络 2021-04-20 07:14:34 关键字 : 专八听力 专八

  • 2022年英语专业八级备考指南3b

      新东方在线专四专八频道给大家整理的2022年英语专业八级备考指南3b,希望能够对大家的专四专八考试备考有所帮助,更多有关专四专八的备

    来源 : 网络 2021-04-20 07:14:14 关键字 : 专八听力 专八

  • 2022年英语专业八级备考指南3a

      新东方在线专四专八频道给大家整理的2022年英语专业八级备考指南3a,希望能够对大家的专四专八考试备考有所帮助,更多有关专四专八的备

    来源 : 网络 2021-04-20 07:13:57 关键字 : 专八听力 专八

  • 2021年专八考试的应试技巧

      新东方在线专四专八频道给大家整理的2021年专八考试的应试技巧,希望能够对大家的专四专八考试备考有所帮助,更多有关专四专八的备考内

    来源 : 网络 2021-04-22 14:17:00 关键字 : 专八听力 专八

更多内容

专四专八基础词汇完整版电子资料

关注新东方在线服务号 回复【专四/专八词汇】

更多>>
更多好课>>
更多>>
更多资料