Decide which of the choices given belowwould correctly complete the passage if inserted inthe corresponding blanks. Select the correct choicefor each blank.
Flight simulator (飞行模拟器) refers to any electronicor mechanical system for training airplane andspacecraft pilots and crew member by simulatingflight conditions. The purpose of simulation is notto completely substitute (1)_____ actual flighttraining but to thoroughly familiarize students withthe vehicle (2)_____ before they (3)_____extensive and possibly dangerous actual flight training. Simulations also is useful for reviewand for familiarizing pilots with new (4)_____ to existing craft.
Two early flight simulators appeared in England within a decade after the first flight of Orvilleand Wilbur Wright. They were designed to enable pilots to stimulate simple aircraft (5)_____in three dimensions: nose up or down; left wing high and right low, or vice versa; and (6)_____to left or right. It took until 1929, however, for a truly effective simulator, the Link Trainer, toappear, devised by Edwin A. Link, a self-educated aviator and inventor from Binghamton, NewYork. (7)_____, airplane instrumentation had been developed sufficiently to permit "blind"flying on instruments alone, but training pilots to do so involved (8)_____ risk. Link built amodel of an airplane cockpit equipped (9)_____ instrument panel and controls that couldrealistically stimulate all the movements of an airplane. Pilots could use the device forinstrument training, manipulating the controls (10)_____ instrument readings so as tomaintain straight and level flight or (11)_____ climb or descent with no visual reference(12)_____ any horizon except for the artificial one on the instrument panel. The trainer wasmodified (13)_____ aircraft technology advanced. Commercial airlines began to use the LinkTrainer for pilot training, and the US government began purchasing them in 1934, (14)_____thousands more as World War II approached.
Technological advances during the war, particularly in electronics, helped to make the flightsimulator increasingly (15)_____. The use of efficient analog computers in the early 1950s ledto further improvements. Airplane cockpits, controls, and instrument displays had by thenbecome so individualized that it was no longer feasible to use a generalized trainer to preparepilots to fly anything (16)_____ the simplest light planes. By the 1950s, the US Air Force wasusing simulators that precisely (17)_____ the cockpits of its planes. During the early 1960s(18)_____ digital and hybrid computers were adopted, and their speed and flexibilityrevolutionized simulation systems. Further advances in computer and (19)_____ technology,notably the development of virtual-reality simulation, have made it possible to (20)_____highly complex real-life conditions.
A. for B. to C. with D. on
A. concerning B. concern C. being concerned D. concerned
A. undertake B. undergo C. underplay D. underuse
A. models B. modifications C. modifiers D. modica
A. manifestations B. manipulations C. manifestoes D. maneuvers
A. yawling B. yawning C. yawing D. yawping
A. From then on B. From now on C. By now D. By then
A. considerable B. considerate C. considerin D. considered
A. for B. in C. with D. on
A. on the part of B. on the basis of C. on the track of D. on the verge of
A. control B. controllable C. controlled D. controller
A. to B. for C. on D. in
A. as for B. as to C. as D. for
A. acquiring B. requiring C. sustaining D. retaining
A. actual B. realistic C. realizing D. true
A. except B. except for C. apart from D. but
A. replenished B. replaced C. replicated D. reposed
A. electronic B. electric C. electricity D. electron
A. program B. programmable C. programmed D. programming
A. resurrect B. reproduce C. resuscitate D. resume